Table of Contents
Journal of Medical Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 408120, 21 pages
Research Article

Extraction of Blood Vessels in Retinal Images Using Four Different Techniques

1Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan
2Isotope Application Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan

Received 30 August 2013; Revised 1 November 2013; Accepted 18 November 2013

Academic Editor: Hasan Al-Nashash

Copyright © 2013 Asloob Ahmad Mudassar and Saira Butt. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A variety of blood vessel extraction (BVE) techniques exist in the literature, but they do not always lead to acceptable solutions especially in the presence of anomalies where the reported work is limited. Four techniques are presented for BVE: (1) BVE using Image Line Cross-Sections (ILCS), (2) BVE using Edge Enhancement and Edge Detection (EEED), (3) BVE using Modified Matched Filtering (MMF), and (4) BVE using Continuation Algorithm (CA). These four techniques have been designed especially for abnormal retinal images containing low vessel contrasts, drusen, exudates, and other artifacts. The four techniques were applied to 30 abnormal retinal images, and the success rate was found to be (95 to 99%) for CA, (88–91%) for EEED, (80–85%) for MMF, and (74–78%) for ILCS. Application of these four techniques to 105 normal retinal images gave improved results: (99-100%) for CA, (96–98%) for EEED, (94-95%) for MMF, and (88–93%) for ILCS. Investigations revealed that the four techniques in the order of increasing performance could be arranged as ILCS, MMF, EEED, and CA. Here we demonstrate these four techniques for abnormal retinal images only. ILCS, EEED, and CA are novel additions whereas MMF is an improved and modified version of an existing matched filtering technique. CA is a promising technique.