Table of Contents
Journal of Medical Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 946574, 13 pages
Research Article

A Digital Model to Simulate Effects of Bone Architecture Variations on Texture at Spatial Resolutions of CT, HR-pQCT, and μCT Scanners

1Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Henkestraße 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
2Service de Radiologie Ostéo-Articulaire, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris, France
3Université Paris VII-Denis Diderot, 5 rue Thomas Mann, 75205 Paris, France

Received 25 October 2013; Accepted 30 January 2014; Published 18 May 2014

Academic Editor: Sarah Cartmell

Copyright © 2014 T. Lowitz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The quantification of changes in the trabecular bone structure induced by musculoskeletal diseases like osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and others by means of a texture analysis is a valuable tool which is expected to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of a disease. The reaction of texture parameters on different alterations in the architecture of the fine trabecular network and inherent imaging factors such as spatial resolution or image noise has to be understood in detail to ensure an accurate and reliable determination of the current bone state. Therefore, a digital model for the quantitative analysis of cancellous bone structures was developed. Five parameters were used for texture analysis: entropy, global and local inhomogeneity, local anisotropy, and variogram slope. Various generic structural changes of cancellous bone were simulated for different spatial resolutions. Additionally, the dependence of the texture parameters on tissue mineralization and noise was investigated. The present work explains changes in texture parameter outcomes based on structural changes originating from structure modifications and reveals that a texture analysis could provide useful information for a trabecular bone analysis even at resolutions below the dimensions of single trabeculae.