Journal of Mycology / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Optimizing Containment and Control of Candida parapsilosis Fungemia among Neonates in the Outbreak Setting Using a Mathematical Modeling Approach

Table 1

Neonatal candidemia model parameter estimates.

ParameterMeaningStandard value (range) Comments and/or reference

NICU admission rate (includes births per day) 0.2 (0.1–0.3)
per day
[18]
Nondisease causing death rate0.0001 (0.000001–0.08) per day4% per year [19, 20]
Disease induced mortality rate0.00003 (0.000002–0.02)
per day
10% over 10 years [6, 7]
Exogenous transmission rate for infection from reservoir0.53 (0.0–0.6)
per day
[16, 17]
Endogenous transmission rate for infection from gut colonization0.30 (0.0–0.4)
per day
[15]
Colonization rate with epidemic strain0.02 (0.0–0.2)
per day
10% in first 5 days of life [8, 9, 11]
Recovery rate0.2 (0.13–0.33)
per day
Days for successful clearance = 5 (3–8) days [21]
Fomite generation rate10.2 (3.6–17.3)
per day
Based on NICU hand hygiene, colonization, survival, and transmission studies [8, 22, 23]
Fomite decay rate78.0 (77.0–79.0)
per day
where C. parapsilosis half-life ( ) on hands = 12.8 minutes [23]
NICU readmission rate0.343 (0.159–0.4)
per day
[20, 24]
Discharge rate0.029 (0.020–0.294) per day Adjusted length of stay = 34.3 (3.4–49.0) days [20, 25]
Handwashing compliance proportion0.40[26]
Handwashing efficacy0.90[26]
Cohorting probability0.80[27]
Neonate to nursing ratio3[27]
Colonization reduction efficacy0.63 0.64[2831]
Infection reduction efficacy0.88 0.79[2831]
Prophylaxis proportion0.29[32]

(probability of effective transmission from hand to object per contact) (prevalence of C. parapsilosis on healthcare worker hands) (average number of direct contacts with neonate in NICU per day).
Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) prophylaxis.
Systemic antifungal prophylaxis.