Table of Contents
Journal of Mycology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7654123, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7654123
Review Article

Diversity of Mushrooms and Their Metabolites of Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Significance

Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India

Received 31 August 2015; Accepted 5 November 2015

Academic Editor: Praveen Rao Juvvadi

Copyright © 2016 Deepak K. Rahi and Deepika Malik. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. K. Rahi, R. C. Rajak, K. K. Shukla, and A. K. Pandey, “Diversity and nutraceutical potential of wild edible mushrooms of Central India,” in Microbial Diversity: Current Perspectives and Potential Applications, pp. 967–980, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  2. Z. Bano, “The nutritive value of mushrooms,” in Proceeding of First Symposium on Survey and Cultivation of Edible Mushroom of India, vol. 2, pp. 148–160, Regional Research Laboratory, Srinagar, India, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. T. Chang and P. G. Miles, “Introduction to mushroom science,” in The Tropical Mushroom-Biological Nature and Cultivation Methods, S. T. Chang and T. H. Quimio, Eds., The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  4. V. P. Gupta, “Mushroom yield- a rich food-a profitable commercial crop,” Kisan World, vol. 37, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  5. H. S. Sohi, “Mushroom culture in India, recent research findings,” Indian Phytopathology, vol. 41, pp. 313–326, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. K. Rahi, K. K. Shukla, R. C. Rajak, and A. K. Pandey, “Agaricales of Central India II: a new species of Cantharellus,” Indian Journal of Mushrooms, In press.
  7. C. Lull, H. J. Wichers, and H. F. J. Savelkoul, “Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2005, no. 2, pp. 63–80, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Roberts and S. Evans, The Book of Fungi, Ivy Press, Lewes, UK, 2013.
  9. C. J. Alexopolous, C. W. Mims, and M. Blackwell, Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, 2002.
  10. S. T. Chang, “Mushroom and mushroom biology,” in Genetics and Breeding of Edible Mushrooms, S. T. Chang, J. A. Bushwell, and P. G. Miles, Eds., pp. 1–3, CRC Press, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. Singer, The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy, Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany, 1986.
  12. R. Watling, “Development characters of agarics,” in Developmental Biology of Higher Fungi, D. Moore, L. A. Casselton, D. A. Wood, and J. C. Frankland, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. K. Rahi, K. K. Shukla, R. C. Rajak, and A. K. Pandey, “Agaricales of Central India I: two new species,” Indian Journal of Mushrooms, vol. 21, no. 1-2, pp. 29–31, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. Qu, H. B. Zhang, and J. K. Liu, “Isolation and structure of a new ceramide from the Basidiomycete Hygrophorus eburneus,” Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung Section B, vol. 59, pp. 241–244, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  15. I. Riede, “Tumor therapy with Amanita phalloides (death cap): stabilization of B-cell chronic lymphatic leukemia,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1129–1132, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Leichter and R. J. Bandoni, “Nutrient content of mushrooms grown in British Columbia,” Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 122–124, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. M. Ayodele and J. A. Okhuoya, “Nutritional and phytochemical evaluation of cultivated Psathyrella atroumbonata Pegler, a Nigerian edible mushroom,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 105, no. 3-4, pp. 158–160, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Li, M. Zhang, and G. Ma, “Hypolipidemic effect of the polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko,” Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 556–562, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Q. Zhang, J. Sun, H. X. Wang, and T. B. Ng, “A novel lectin with antiproliferative activity from the medicinal mushroom Pholiota adiposa,” Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 415–421, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J.-L. Mau, C.-N. Chang, S.-J. Huang, and C.-C. Chen, “Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta and Termitomyces albuminosus mycelia,” Food Chemistry, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 111–118, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Chatterjee, S. Khatua, S. Chatterjee et al., “Polysaccharide-rich fraction of Termitomyces eurhizus accelerate healing of indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in mice,” Glycoconjugate Journal, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 759–768, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y.-Y. Lu, Z.-H. Ao, Z.-M. Lu et al., “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the dry matter of culture broth of Termitomyces albuminosus and its extracts,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 432–436, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Nomura, N. Inokuchi, H. Kobayashi et al., “Purification and primary structure of a new guanylic acid specific ribonuclease from Pleurotus ostreatus,” The Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 26–33, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Boa, Wild Edible Fungi: A Global Overview of Their Use and Importance to People, FAO, 2007.
  25. V. P. Sharma, S. Kumar, and R. P. Tiwari, Flammulina velutipes, The Culinary Medicinal Winter Mushroom, vol. 6 of Medicinal Attributes and Their Properties, 2009.
  26. G.-Q. Liu and K.-C. Zhang, “Mechanisms of the anticancer action of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) karst.: a new understanding,” Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. A. Aina, S. G. Jonathan, O. J. Olawuyi, D. O. Ojelabi, and B. M. Durowoju, “Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of alcoholic extracts of Cantharellus cibarius—a Nigerian mushroom,” New York Science Journal, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 114–120, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. Méndez-Espinoza, E. García-Nieto, A. Montoya Esquivel et al., “Antigenotoxic potential of aqueous extracts from the chanterelle mushroom, Cantharellus cibarius (higher Basidiomycetes), on human mononuclear cell cultures,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 325–332, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. E. C. Ooi and F. Liu, “Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 715–729, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M.-Y. Jiang, L. Zhang, Z.-J. Dong, and J.-K. Liu, “Two new metabolites from basidiomycete Sparassis crispa,” Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1087–1089, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Kimura, “Natural products and biological activity of the pharmacologically active cauliflower mushroom Sparassis crispa,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 982317, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. X. Wang, T. B. Ng, and Q. H. Liu, “Alveolarin, a novel antifungal polypeptide from the wild mushroom Polyporus alveolaris,” Peptides, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 693–696, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Ukai, T. Kiho, C. Hara et al., “Polysaccharides in fungi: XIII. Antitumor activity of various polysaccharides isolated from Dictyophora indusiata, Ganoderma japonicum, Cordyceps cicadae, Auricularia auricula-judae and Auricularia sp,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 741–744, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Misaki, M. Kakuta, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, and H. Miyaji, “Studies on interrelation of structure and antitumor effects of polysaccharides: antitumor action of periodate-modified, branched (13)-β-d-glucan of Auricularia auricula-judae, and other polysaccharides containing (13)-glycosidic linkages,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 115–129, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. J. M. Berkeyley, “Introduction to cryptogamic botany, London. H. Bailliere,” Foods and Food Ingredients Journal of Japan, vol. 167, pp. 69–85, 1857. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. A. Buswell and S. T. Chang, “Edible mushrooms. Attributes and applications,” in Genetics and Breeding of Edible Mushrooms, S. T. Chang, J. A. Buswell, and P. G. Miles, Eds., pp. 297–394, Gordon and Breach, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  37. B. A. Oso, “Mushrooms in yoruba mythology and medicinal practices,” Economic Botany, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 367–371, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Bautista-Nava and Á. Moreno-Fuentes, “First record of the edibility of Calostoma cinnabarina Desv. (Sclerodermatales),” Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 561–564, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Al-Fatimi, M. Wurster, H. Kreisel, and U. Lindequist, “Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen,” Pharmazie, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 776–780, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. K. Mallick, S. K. Bhutia, and T. K. Maiti, “Macrophage stimulation by polysaccharides isolated from barometer earthstar mushroom, Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers.) Morgan (Gasteromycetideae),” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 237–248, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. V. Crisan and A. Sands, “Nutritional value,” in The Biology and Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms, S. T. Chang and W. A. Hayes, Eds., p. 137, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  42. S. T. Chang, O. W. Lau, and K. Y. Cho, “The cultivation and nutritional value of Pleurotus sajor-caju,” European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 58–62, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. S. F. Li and S. T. Chang, “Nutrititive value of Volvariella volvaceae in tropical mushrooms,” in Biological Nature and Cultivation Methods, S. T. Chang and T. H. Quimio, Eds., p. 199, The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  44. T. O. Adejumo and O. B. Awosanya, “Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species from South Western Nigeria,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1084–1088, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Barros, P. Baptista, D. M. Correia, S. Casal, B. Oliveira, and I. C. F. R. Ferreira, “Fatty acid and sugar compositions, and nutritional value of five wild edible mushrooms from Northeast Portugal,” Food Chemistry, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 140–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. C. Egwim and R. C. Elem, “Proximate composition, phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ten selected wild edible Nigerian mushrooms,” American Journal of Food and Nutrition, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. J. Gbolagade, A. Ajayi, I. Oku, and D. Wankasi, “Nutritive value of common wild edible mushrooms from Southern Nigeria,” Global Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 16–21, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  48. Z. Bano and S. Rajarathnam, “Pleurotus mushroom as a nutritious food,” in Tropical Mushrooms—Biological Nature and Cultivation Methods, S. T. Chang and T. H. Quimio, Eds., p. 363, The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  49. P. Surinrut, K. Julshamn, and L. R. Njaa, “Protein, amino acids and some major and trace elements in Thai and Norwegian mushrooms,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 117–125, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. V. A. Díez and A. Alvarez, “Compositional and nutritional studies on two wild edible mushrooms from northwest Spain,” Food Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 417–422, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Chirinang and K.-O. Intarapichet, “Amino acids and antioxidant properties of the oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju,” ScienceAsia, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 326–331, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. Agrahar-Murugkar and G. Subbulakshmi, “Nutritional value of edible wild mushrooms collected from the Khasi hills of Meghalaya,” Food Chemistry, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 599–603, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Stamets, Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1993.
  54. J. G. Vaidya and A. S. Rabba, “Fungi in folk medicine,” Mycologist, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 131–133, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. W. Quack, T. Anke, F. Oberwinkler, B. M. Giannetti, and W. Steglich, “Antibiotics from Basidiomycetes V. Merulidial, a new nntibiotic from the basidiomycete, Merulius tremellosus,” The Journal of Antibiotics, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 737–741, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. C. Vanterpool and R. Marcae, “Notes on the Canadian Tuckahoe, its occurrence, in Canada and the infertility of its perfect stage, Polyporus tuberaster Jacq. Ex. Fries,” Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 147–157, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  57. B. H. Huang, K. H. Yung, and S. T. Chang, “Fatty acid composition of Volvariella volvaceae and other edible mushrooms,” Mushroom Science, vol. 12, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  58. P. K. Ouzouni, D. Petridis, W.-D. Koller, and K. A. Riganakos, “Nutritional value and metal content of wild edible mushrooms collected from West Macedonia and Epirus, Greece,” Food Chemistry, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 1575–1580, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. E. Mallikarjuna, A. Ranjini, D. J. Haware, M. R. Vijayalakshmi, M. N. Shashirekha, and S. Rajarathnam, “Mineral composition of four edible mushrooms,” Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2013, Article ID 805284, 5 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. K. Zahid, S. Barua, and S. M. I. Haque, “Proximate composition and mineral content of selected edible mushroom varieties of bangladesh,” Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition, vol. 22-23, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. R. Kihlberg, “The microbe as a source of food,” in Annual Review of Microbiology, L. E. Clifton, S. Raffel, and M. P. Starr, Eds., vol. 26, pp. 427–466, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  62. L. Viikari and M. Linko, “Reduction of nucleic acid content of SCP,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 12, pp. 17–19, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  63. G. S. F. Li and S. T. Chang, “The nucleic acid content of some edible mushrooms,” European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 237–240, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Zhang, S. W. Cui, P. C. K. Cheung, and Q. Wang, “Antitumor polysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on their isolation process, structural characteristics and antitumor activity,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 4–19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Sagar, C. Gautam, and A. K. Sehgal, “Studies on some medicinal mushrooms of Himachal Pradesh,” Indian Journal of Mushrooms, vol. 25, pp. 8–14, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  66. S. H. Pai, S. C. Jong, and W. Low, “Usage of mushrooms,” Bioindustry, vol. 1, pp. 126–131, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  67. S. T. Chang, J. A. Buswell, and S. W. Chiu, Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1993.
  68. R. K. Arora, R. P. Singh, and S. K. Guru, “Determination of bio-active compounds in medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps sinensis,” Mushroom Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 61–66, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  69. A. M. Jones and E. B. G. Jones, “Observations on the marine gasteromycete Nia vibrissa,” Mycological Research, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. V. Brower, “Nutraceuticals: poised for a healthy slice of healthcare market,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 728–730, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. H. Zeisel, “Regulation of ‘nutraceuticals’,” Science, vol. 285, no. 5435, pp. 1853–1855, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. W. Chen and P. G. Miles, “Biomedical research and the application of mushroom nutraceuticals from Ganoderma lucidum,” in Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, D. J. Royse, Ed., pp. 153–159, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  73. H. K. Biesalski, “Nutraceuticals: link between nutrition and medicine,” in Nutraceuticals in Health and Disease Prevention, K. Kramer, P. P. Hoppe, and L. Packer, Eds., pp. 1–26, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  74. W. Andlauer and P. Fürst, “Nutraceuticals: a piece of history, present status and outlook,” Food Research International, vol. 35, no. 2-3, pp. 171–176, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. E. Stauffer, “Nutraceuticals,” Cereal Foods World, vol. 44, pp. 115–117, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  76. M. Whitman, “Understanding the perceived need for complementary and alternative nutraceuticals: lifestyle issues,” Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 190–194, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. T. Chang and J. A. Buswell, “Mushroom nutriceuticals,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 473–476, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. K. Rahi, K. K. Shukla, R. C. Rajak, and A. K. Pandey, “Nutritional potential of Termitomyces heimii: an important wild edible tribal mushroom species of M.P.,” Journal of Basic and Applied Mycology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 36–38, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  79. S. Rajarathnam and Z. Bano, “Hand book of applied mycology,” in Foods and Feeds, D. K. Arora, K. G. Mukherji, and E. H. Marth, Eds., pp. 241–292, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  80. S. T. Chang, “Mushrooms as human food,” BioScience, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 399–401, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. S. T. Chang and P. G. Miles, “The nutritional attributes and medicinal value of edible mushrooms,” in Edible Mushrooms and Their Cultivation, pp. 27–39, CRC Press, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  82. R. H. Boda, A. H. Wani, M. A. Zargar, B. A. Ganie, B. A. Wani, and S. A. Ganie, “Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley,” Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 623–627, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. Mattila, A.-M. Lampi, R. Ronkainen, J. Toivo, and V. Piironen, “Sterol and vitamin D2 contents in some wild and cultivated mushrooms,” Food Chemistry, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 293–298, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. W. Breene, “Nutritional and medicinal value of speciality mushrooms,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 53, pp. 883–894, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  85. P. H. Mattila, V. I. Piironen, E. J. Uusi-Rauva, and P. E. Koivistoinen, “Vitamin D contents in edible mushrooms,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 2449–2453, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Z. Zrodlowski, “The influence of washing and peeling of mushrooms Agaricusbisporus on the level of heavy metal contaminations,” Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 23–33, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  87. P. Mattila, K. Suonpää, and V. Piironen, “Functional properties of edible mushrooms,” Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 7-8, pp. 694–696, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. Mattila, K. Könkö, M. Eurola et al., “Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 2343–2348, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. W. Anderson and K. Ward, “High-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets for insulin-treated men with diabetes mellitus,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2312–2321, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. V. Vahouny and D. Kritchevsky, Dietary Fiber—Basic and Clinical Aspects, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
  91. Protein Advisory Group, Single-Cell Protein Guideline No. 4, FAO/WHO/UNICEF Protein Advisory Group, United Nations, New York, NY, USA, 1970.
  92. N. S. Scrimshaw, “Single cell protein for human consumption: an overview,” in Single Cell Protein, S. R. Tannenbaum and D. I. V. Wang, Eds., vol. 2, pp. 1–4, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  93. R. Singla, A. Ganguli, and M. Ghosh, “Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic properties of raw and osmotically dehydrated dried mushroom (Agaricus bisporous) snack food,” International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1290–1299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. P. Wasser and A. L. Weis, “Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: current perspectives,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31–62, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. G.-S. Wu, J.-J. Guo, J.-L. Bao et al., “Anti-cancer properties of triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum—a review,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 981–992, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. Hirotani, T. Furuya, and M. Shiro, “A ganoderic acid derivative, a highly oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoid from Ganoderma lucidum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2055–2061, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. H. Sato, T. Nishitoba, and S. Shirasu, “Ganoderiol A and B, new triterpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi),” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2887–2890, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. T. Nishitoba, S. Goto, H. Sato, and S. Sakamura, “Bitter triterpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma applanatum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 193–197, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. Hirotani, I. Asaka, C. Ino, T. Furuya, and M. Shiro, “Ganoderic acid derivatives and ergosta-4,7,22-triene-3,6-dione from Ganoderma lucidum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2797–2803, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. L.-J. Lin, M.-S. Shiao, and S.-F. Yeh, “Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 2269–2271, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M.-S. Shiao, L.-J. Lin, and S.-F. Yeh, “Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 2911–2914, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. T. Nishitoba, H. Sato, and S. Sakamura, “Triterpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1777–1784, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. Chairul, T. Tokuyama, M. Nishizawa, M. Shiro, H. Tokuda, and Y. Hayashiji, “Malonate half-esters of homolanostanoid from an Asian Ganoderma fungus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 923–928, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. Hirotani and T. Furuya, “Changes of the triterpenoid patterns during formation of the fruit body in Ganoderma lucidum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 3767–3771, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. B.-S. Min, J.-J. Gao, N. Nakamura, and M. Hattori, “Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against Meth-A and LLC tumor cells,” Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1026–1033, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. T. C. McMorris and M. Anchel, “Fungal metabolites. The structures of the novel sesquiterpenoids illudin-S and -M,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1594–1600, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. Y. Zhang, G. L. Mills, and M. G. Nair, “Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the fruiting body of an edible mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita,” Phytomedicine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 386–390, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. S. H. Wu, X. D. Luo, Y. B. Ma et al., “Two novel secoergosterols from the fungus Tylopilusplum beoviolaceus,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 63, pp. 534–536, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  109. K. P. Odenthal, R. Seeger, and G. Vogel, “Toxic effects of phallolysin from amanita phalloides,” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 290, no. 2-3, pp. 133–143, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. H. X. Wang, T. B. Ng, W. K. Liu, V. E. C. Ooi, and S. T. Chang, “Isolation and characterization of two distinct lectins with antiproliferative activity from the cultured mycelium of the edible mushroom Tricholoma mongolicum,” International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 508–513, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. Staunton and K. J. Weissman, “Polyketide biosynthesis: a millennium review,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 380–416, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. G. Schneider and J. Wölfling, “Synthetic cardenolides and related compounds,” Current Organic Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 14, pp. 1381–1403, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. Mandal, A. Nayak, S. K. Banerjee, J. Banerji, and A. Banerji, “A new carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae),” Natural Product Communications, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1679–1682, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. T. Aniszewski, Alkaloids: Chemistry, Biology, Ecology and Applications, Elsevier, 2nd edition, 2015.
  115. J. B. Harborne and C. A. Williams, “Advances in flavonoid research since 1992,” Phytochemistry, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 481–504, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. K.-T. Chung, T. Y. Wong, C.-I. Wei, Y.-W. Huang, and Y. Lin, “Tannins and human health: a review,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 421–464, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus