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Journal of Nucleic Acids
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 518162, 8 pages
Review Article

Recent Advances in Chemical Modification of Peptide Nucleic Acids

Department of Chemistry, Binghamton University, State University of New York, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA

Received 2 June 2012; Revised 12 July 2012; Accepted 20 July 2012

Academic Editor: Masayasu Kuwahara

Copyright © 2012 Eriks Rozners. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has become an extremely powerful tool in chemistry and biology. Although PNA recognizes single-stranded nucleic acids with exceptionally high affinity and sequence selectivity, there is considerable ongoing effort to further improve properties of PNA for both fundamental science and practical applications. The present paper discusses selected recent studies that improve on cellular uptake and binding of PNA to double-stranded DNA and RNA. The focus is on chemical modifications of PNA's backbone and heterocyclic nucleobases. The paper selects representative recent studies and does not attempt to provide comprehensive coverage of the broad and vibrant field of PNA modification.