Table of Contents
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Volume 2014, Article ID 359436, 9 pages
Research Article

Nicotine-Cadmium Interaction Alters Exploratory Motor Function and Increased Anxiety in Adult Male Mice

1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Neuroscience Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, College Building II, Room G14, Km 8.5 Afe Babalola Way, PMB 5454, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
4Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Received 17 May 2014; Accepted 27 August 2014; Published 13 November 2014

Academic Editor: Yasuji Matsuoka

Copyright © 2014 Duyilemi Chris Ajonijebu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In this study we evaluated the time dependence in cadmium-nicotine interaction and its effect on motor function, anxiety linked behavioural changes, serum electrolytes, and weight after acute and chronic treatment in adult male mice. Animals were separated randomly into four groups of n = 6 animals each. Treatment was done with nicotine, cadmium, or nicotine-cadmium for 21 days. A fourth group received normal saline for the same duration (control). Average weight was determined at 7-day interval for the acute (D1-D7) and chronic (D7-D21) treatment phases. Similarly, the behavioural tests for exploratory motor function (open field test) and anxiety were evaluated. Serum electrolytes were measured after the chronic phase. Nicotine, cadmium, and nicotine-cadmium treatments caused no significant change in body weight after the acute phase while cadmium-nicotine and cadmium caused a decline in weight after the chronic phase. This suggests the role of cadmium in the weight loss observed in tobacco smoke users. Both nicotine and cadmium raised serum Ca2+ concentration and had no significant effect on K+ ion when compared with the control. In addition, nicotine-cadmium treatment increased bioaccumulation of Cd2+ in the serum which corresponded to a decrease in body weight, motor function, and an increase in anxiety.