(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 2: Concentration (mg/dL) of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ and cadmium in the blood. (a) Bar chart showing the level for Na+ in blood (mg/mL). An increase in Na+ was associated with cadmium treatment when compared with the control (). (b) An empirical increase in Ca2+ concentration was observed in the blood of the treatment groups when compared with the control (). (c) Concentration of K+ in blood; no significant change was seen in the K+ ion concentration after nicotine and (or) cadmium treatment. (d) Bar chart demonstrating the blood level of cadmium in the treatment groups and control. An increase in Cd2+ was observed in the nicotine-cadmium treatment versus the control ().