- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Journal of Nanomaterials

Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 48247, 10 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/48247

## Luminescence, Energy Transfer, and Upconversion Mechanisms of
Y_{2}O_{3}
Nanomaterials Doped with Eu^{3+},Tb^{3+}, Tm^{3+},Er^{3+}, and Yb^{3+} Ions

^{1}Institute of Materials Science, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam^{2}Institute des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP), UMR-CNRS 7588, Universites Pierre et Marie Curie et Denis Diderot, 140 Rue de Lourmel, Paris 75015, France^{3}College of Technology, Vietnam National University, 144 Xuan Thuy Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, Vietnam

Received 21 May 2007; Revised 16 December 2007; Accepted 31 December 2007

Academic Editor: Wieslaw Strek

Copyright © 2007 TranKim Anh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Linked References

- C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,”
*Advanced Functional Materials*, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 511–516, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - A. S. Edelstein and R. C. Cammarata, Eds.,
*Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications*, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 1998. - B. R. Ratna, A. D. Dinsmore et al., “Nanophosphors: synthesis, properties and application,” in
*Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Science and Technology of Display Phosphors (ICSTDP '99)*, p. 295, San Diego, Calif, USA, November 1999. - T. K. Anh, T. Ngoc, P. T. Nga, V. T. Bich, P. Long, and W. Strek, “Energy transfer between ${\text{Tb}}^{3+}$ and ${\text{Eu}}^{3+}$ in ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ crystals,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 215–221, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - S. Shionoya and W. M. Yen,
*Phosphor Handbook*, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1999. - G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier,
*Luminescent Materials*, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1994. - H. Eilers and B. M. Tissue, “Laser Spectroscopy of Nanocrystals ${\text{Eu}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ and ${\text{Eu}}^{3+}{\text{:Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$,”
*Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 251, no. 1-2, pp. 74–78, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - M. Kottaisamy, D. Jeyakumar, R. Jagannathan, and M. M. Rao, “Yttrium oxide: ${\text{Eu}}^{3+}$ red phosphor by self-propagating high temperature synthesis,”
*Materials Research Bulletin*, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1013–1020, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - B. Bihari, H. Eilers, and B. M. Tissue, “Spectra and dynamics of monoclinic ${\text{Eu}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ and ${\text{Eu}}^{3+}{\text{:Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystals,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. Ye, Z. Guiwen, Z. Weiping, and X. Shangda, “Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence of nanocrystalline ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ phosphors,”
*Materials Research Bulletin*, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 501–506, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - E. T. Goldburt, B. Kulkarni, R. N. Bhargava, J. Taylor, and M. Libera, “Size dependent efficiency in Tb doped ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystalline phosphor,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 72–74, pp. 190–192, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - Q. Li, L. Gao, and D. Yan, “Effects of grain size on wavelength of ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}{\text{:Eu}}^{3+}$ emission spectra,”
*Nanostructured Materials*, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 825–831, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J. A. Cooper, H. G. Paris, S. R. Stock, C. J. Summers, and D. N. Hill, “Investigation of the effect of process variables on properties of europium-doped yttrium-oxide phosphor,”
*Journal of the Society for Information Display*, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 163–166, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - D. K. Williams, B. Bihari, B. M. Tissue, and J. M. McHale, “Preparation and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk monoclinic ${\text{Eu}}^{3+}{\text{:Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ and comparison to ${\text{Eu}}^{3+}{\text{:Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystals,”
*Journal of Physical Chemistry B*, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 916–920, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - A. Konrad, T. Fries, A. Gahn et al., “Chemical vapor synthesis and luminescence properties of nanocrystalline cubic ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$,”
*Journal of Applied Physics*, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 3129–3133, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. K. Anh, N. Vu, P. T. M. Chau, L. Q. Minh, N. T. Oanh, and C. Barthou, “Preparation and optical properties of ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ nanophosphors,” in
*Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on the Materials Science*, F. F. Bekker, N. D. Chien, J. J. M. Franse, T. D. Hien, N. T. Hien, and N. P. Thuy, Eds., Trends in Materials and Technology, pp. 320–323, Hanoi, Vietnam, November 1999. - J. A. Capobianco, F. Vetron, T. D'Alesio, G. Tessari, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical spectroscopy of nanocrystalline cubic ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}{\text{:Er}}^{3+}$ obtained via combustion synthesis,”
*Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics*, vol. 2, pp. 3203–3207, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. Tang, Y. Lin, and Z. Zheng, “Luminescent properties of ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ synthesized by sol-gel processing,”
*Journal of Materials Processing Technology*, vol. 121, no. 2-3, pp. 265–268, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - G. Y. Hong, B. S. Jeon, Y. K. Yoo, and J. S. Yoo, “Photoluminescence characteristics of spherical ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ phosphors by aerosol pyrolysis,”
*Journal of the Electrochemical Society*, vol. 148, no. 11, pp. H161–H166, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. Igarashi, M. Ihara, T. Kusunoki, K. Ohno, T. Isobe, and M. Senna, “Relationship between optical properties and crystallinity of nanometer ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ phosphor,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 76, no. 12, pp. 1549–1551, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - C. Feldmann, “Polyol-mediated synthesis of nanoscale functional materials,”
*Advanced Functional Materials*, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 101–107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - R. Bazzi, M. A. Flores-Gonzalez, C. Louis et al., “Synthesis and luminescent properties of sub-5-nm lanthanide oxides nanoparticles,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 102-103, pp. 445–450, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - G. Wakefield, E. Holland, P. J. Dobson, and J. L. Hutchison, “Luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$,”
*Advanced Materials*, vol. 13, no. 20, pp. 1557–1560, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. K. Anh,
*The role of active centre concentration in the phenomena of energy transfer in lanthanide compounds*, Doctoral thesis. - D. R. Tallant, C. H. Seager, and R. L. Simpson, “Energy transfer and relaxation in europium-activated ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ after excitation by ultraviolet photons,”
*Journal of Applied Physics*, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 4053–4064, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - N. Vu, T. K. Anh, L. Q. Minh, and C. Barthou, “Optical properties of ${\text{Er}}^{3+}$ doped ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanophosphors,”
*Communication in Physics*, vol. 12, pp. 119–123, 2002. View at Google Scholar - T.-L. Phan, M. H. Phan, N. Vu, T. K. Anh, and S.-C. Yu, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanophosphors,”
*Physica Status Solidi (a)*, vol. 201, no. 9, pp. 2170–2174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. K. Anh, L. Q. Minh, N. Vu et al., “Nanomaterials containing rare-earth ions Tb, Eu, Er and Yb: preparation, optical properties and application potential,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 102-103, pp. 391–394, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - N. Vu, T. K. Anh, C. Barthou, and L. Q. Minh, “Preparation, optical properties and up conversion effect of the nanophosphors doped with Er and Yb rare earth ions,” in
*Proceedings of the 9th Asia Pacific Physics Conference (APPC '04)*, pp. 579–580, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 2004. - N. Vu,
*Preparation, optical properties of nanophosphors*${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$*, Tb, Er and Yb*, Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Materials Science, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2007. - N. Nguyen, M. H. Nam, T. K. Anh, L. Q. Minh, and E. Tanguy, “Optical properties of ${\text{Eu}}^{3+}$ doped ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanophosphors,”
*Advances in Natural Sciences*, vol. 6, pp. 119–123, 2006. View at Google Scholar - T. K. Anh, L. T. K. Giang, N. Vu et al., “Luminescence and energy transfer of ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanocolloidal containing rare earth ions,”
*Journal on Science and Technology for Development*, vol. 24, pp. 85–93, 2007. View at Google Scholar - N. Vu, T. K. Anh, G.-C. Yi, and W. Strek, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ nanophosphors prepared by combustion synthesis,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 122-123, pp. 776–779, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J. A. Capobianco, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Enhancement of red emission $({\mathrm{}}^{4}{\text{F}}_{9/2}\to {\mathrm{}}^{4}{\text{I}}_{15/2})$
via upconversion in bulk and nanocrystalline cubic ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}{\text{:Er}}^{3+}$,”
*Journal of Physical Chemistry B*, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1181–1187, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - D. Matsuura, “Red, green, and blue upconversion luminescence of trivalent-rare-earth ion-doped ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystals,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 81, no. 24, pp. 4526–4528, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - A. M. Pires, O. A. Serra, and M. R. Davolos, “Morphological and luminescent studies on nanosized Er, Yb-yttrium oxide up-converter prepared from different precursors,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 113, no. 3-4, pp. 174–182, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Effect of ${\text{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoping on the up conversion emission in nanocrystalline ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}{\text{:Er}}^{3+}$,”
*Journal of Physical Chemistry B*, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 1107–1112, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - G. De, W. Qi, J. Zhang et al., “Upconversion luminescence properties of ${\text{Y}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}{\text{:Yb}}^{3+}$, ${\text{Er}}^{3+}$ nanostructures,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 119-120, pp. 258–263, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - C. Strohhöfer and A. Polman, “Absorption and emission spectroscopy in ${\text{Er}}^{3+}$-${\text{Yb}}^{3+}$ doped aluminum oxide waveguides,”
*Optical Materials*, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 705–712, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - SIEMENS, “Profile User's Guide,” 1994, Diffrac-AT, Version 3.2. View at Google Scholar
- 1998, SIEMENS Win-Crysize.
- T. Inami, M. Kobiyama, S. Okuda, H. Maeta, and H. Ohtsuka, “Grain size measurement of nanocrystalline gold by X-ray diffraction method,”
*Nanostructured Materials*, vol. 12, no. 5–8, pp. 657–660, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - L. T. C. Tuong and P. V. Phuc, “Determination of nanocrystal-sizes and their distribution by X-ray diffraction method for ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ nanophosphors,” in
*Proceedings of the International Workshop on Optics and Spectroscopy*, pp. 501–504, Hanoi, Vietnam, March-April 2000. - T. K. Anh and W. Strek, “Dynamics of energy transfer in ${\text{Tb}}_{1-x}{\text{Eu}}_{\text{x}}{\text{P}}_{5}{\text{O}}_{14}$ crystals,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 205–210, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - H. Song and J. Wang, “Dependence of photoluminescent properties of cubic ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}{\text{:Tb}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals on particle size and temperature,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 220–226, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - Z. Wei-Wei, X. Mei, Z. Wei-Ping et al., “Site-selective spectra and time-resolved spectra of nanocrystalline ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$,”
*Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 376, no. 3-4, pp. 318–323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - D. Kumar, J. Sankar, K. G. Cho, V. Craciun, and R. K. Singh, “Enhancement of cathodoluminescent and photoluminescent properties of ${\text{Eu:Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ luminescent films by vacuum cooling,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 77, no. 16, pp. 2518–2520, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perriere, E. Millon et al., “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,”
*Journal of Applied Physics*, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 4885–4890, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, M. Th. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Growth of rare earth (RE) doped concentration gradient crystal fibers and analysis of dynamical processes of laser resonant transitions in RE-doped ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}$ (RE=${\text{Yb}}^{3+}$, ${\text{Er}}^{3+}$, ${\text{Ho}}^{3+}$),”
*Journal of Alloys and Compounds*, vol. 341, no. 1-2, pp. 214–219, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - M. Abdullah, C. Panatarani, T.-O Kim, and K. Okuyama, “Nanostructured ${\text{ZnO/Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ for use as in luminescent polymer electrolyte composites,”
*Journal of Alloys and Compounds*, vol. 377, no. 1-2, pp. 298–305, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - N. Joffin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, M. Verelst, G. Baret, and A. Garcia, “The influence of microstructure on luminescent properties of ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\text{:Eu}$ prepared by spray pyrolysis,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 113, no. 3-4, pp. 249–257, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - S.-S. Yi, J. S. Bae, B. K. Moon, J. H. Jeong, J.-C. Park, and I. W. Kim, “Enhanced luminescence of pulsed-laser-deposited ${\text{Y}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}{\text{:Eu}}^{3+}$ thin-film phosphors by Li doping,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 81, no. 18, pp. 3344–3346, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - P. N. Prasad,
*Nanophotonic*, Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 2004. - T. K. Anh, N. Vu, T. T. Huong, and L. Q. Minh, “Nanomaterials containing rare earth ions for infrared card and planar waveguide applications,” in
*The 2nd International Workshop on Nanophysics and Nanotechnology (IWONN '04)*, pp. 161–164, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 2004. - T. K. Anh, L. T. K. Giang, L. D. Tuyen et al., “Oxide nanoparticles and colloidal, preparation, optical properties and application potential,” in
*Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Functional Materials and the 3rd International Workshop on Nanophysics and Nanotechnology*, pp. 424–427, Halong, Vietnam, December 2006. - T. T. Huong, T. K. Anh, M. H. Nam, C. Barthou, W. Strek, and L. Q. Minh, “Preparation and infrared emission of silica-zirconia-alumina doped with erbium for planar waveguide,”
*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 122-123, pp. 911–913, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar