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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 841971, 9 pages
Research Article

Hydroxyapatite Nanopowder Synthesis with a Programmed Resorption Rate

1Institute of high Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Poland
2Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
3Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw, Poland

Received 11 September 2012; Revised 18 October 2012; Accepted 1 November 2012

Academic Editor: Yan-Yan Song

Copyright © 2012 Dariusz Smoleń et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder with a programmed material resorption rate was developed. The aqueous reaction solution was heated by a microwave radiation field with high energy density. The measurements included powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the density, specific surface area (SSA), and chemical composition as specified by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry technique (ICP-OES). The morphology and structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A degradation test in accordance with norm ISO 10993-4 was conducted. The developed method enables control of the average grain size and chemical composition of the obtained HAp nanoparticles by regulating the microwave radiation time. As a consequence, it allows programming of the material degradation rate and makes possible an adjustment of the material activity in a human body to meet individual resorption rate needs. The authors synthesized a pure, fully crystalline hexagonal hydroxyapatite nanopowder with a specific surface area from 60 to almost 240 m2/g, a Ca/P molar ratio in the range of 1.57–1.67, and an average grain size from 6 nm to over 30 nm. A 28-day degradation test indicated that the material solubility ranged from 4 to 20 mg/dm3.