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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 146382, 8 pages
Research Article

Influence of Annealing on Properties of Spray Deposited ZnO Thin Films

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 8 August 2013; Revised 18 October 2013; Accepted 21 October 2013

Academic Editor: Mengnan Qu

Copyright © 2013 Kalyani Nadarajah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates via the spray pyrolysis technique. The films were subsequently annealed in ambient air from 300°C to 500°C. The morphology and structural properties of the thin films were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques. Electrical resistivity of the thin films was measured using a data acquisition unit. The optical properties of the films were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) technique. X-ray diffraction data showed that the films were grown in the (002) direction with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average grain size ranged from 15 to 27 nm. Increasing annealing temperatures resulted in larger grain sizes and higher crystallinity, with the surface roughness of annealed films being more than twice if compared to unannealed film. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased with the increasing annealing temperature. The UV and visible band emissions were observed in the photoluminescence spectra, due to exciton and defect-related emissions, respectively. The transmission values of the films were as high as 90% within the visible range (400–700 nm).