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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 530959, 8 pages
Research Article

Incorporated W Roles on Microstructure and Properties of W-C:H Films by a Hybrid Linear Ion Beam Systems

Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China

Received 9 October 2013; Revised 21 November 2013; Accepted 21 November 2013

Academic Editor: Myoung-Woon Moon

Copyright © 2013 Peng Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


W-incorporated diamond-like carbon (W-C:H) films were fabricated by a hybrid beams system consisting of a DC magnetron sputtering and a linear ion source. The W concentration (1.08~31.74 at.%) in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The cross-sectional topography, composition, and microstructure of the W-C:H films were investigated by SEM, XPS, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties of the films as a function of W concentration were evaluated by a stress-tester, nanoindentation, and ball-on-disk tribometer, respectively. The results showed that films mainly exhibited the feature of amorphous carbon when W concentration of the films was less than 4.38 at.%, where the incorporated W atoms would be bonded with C atoms and resulted in the formation of nanoparticles. The W-C:H film with 4.38 at.% W concentration showed a minimum value of residual compressive stress, a higher hardness, and better tribological properties. Beyond this W concentration range, both the residual stress and mechanical properties were deteriorated due to the growth of tungsten carbide nanoparticles in the carbon matrix.