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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013, Article ID 619682, 8 pages
Research Article

Effect of Liquid Ga on Metal Surfaces: Characterization of Morphology and Chemical Composition of Metals Heated in Liquid Ga

Radiation Instrumentation Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeollabuk-do, Jeongeup-si 580-185, Republic of Korea

Received 18 October 2012; Revised 21 December 2012; Accepted 21 December 2012

Academic Editor: Yue Li

Copyright © 2013 Eun Je Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigates the effect of liquid gallium (Ga) on metal foils made of titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb), and molybdenum (Mo). The Ti, Nb, and Mo foils were heated in liquid Ga at 120°C for a maximum of two weeks. After heating, the changes in the morphology and the chemical composition of the metal foils were analyzed by using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The results of the analysis indicated that the Nb foil showed the minimum adhesion of liquid Ga to the surface while the maximum amount of liquid Ga was observed to adhere to the Ti foil. In addition, the Nb foil was oxidized and the Mo foil was reduced during the heating process. Considering these effects, we conclude that Mo may be used as an alternative encapsulation material for Ga in addition to Nb, which is used as the conventional encapsulation material, due to its chemical resistance against oxidation in hot liquid Ga.