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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 101958, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/101958
Research Article

Metallurgical Mechanism and Optical Properties of CuSnZnSSe Powders Using a 2-Step Sintering Process

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2The Instrument Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

Received 3 April 2014; Accepted 14 May 2014; Published 5 June 2014

Academic Editor: Liang-Wen Ji

Copyright © 2014 Tai-Hsiang Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cu2SnZn(S + Se)4 is an excellent absorber material for solar cells. This study obtained Cu2SnZn(S + Se)4 powders through solid state reaction by the ball milling and sintering processes from elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se without using either polluting chemicals or expensive vacuum facilities. Ratios of S/S + Se in CuSnZnSSe were controlled from 0 to 1. The results showed that the 2-step sintering process (400°C for 12 hrs and then 700°C for 1 hr) was able to stabilize the composition and structure of the CuSnZnSSe powders. The crystallized intensity of the CuSnZnS matrix decreased with increasing the Se content. Raising the Se content restrained the SnS phase and reduced the resistance of the absorber layer. In addition, Raman data confirmed that Se caused a Raman shift in the CuSnZnSSe matrix and enhanced the optical properties of the CuSnZnSSe powders. For the interface of CuSnZnSSe film and Mo substrate, Mo could diffuse into CuSnZnSSe matrix after 200°C annealing. The interface thermal diffusion of CuSnZnSSe/ZnS improved the effects of stack to enhance the stability of structure.