Journal of Nanomaterials / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Engineered Nanomaterials: Knowledge Gaps in Fate, Exposure, Toxicity, and Future Directions

Table 2

Oral toxicity of TiO2 to rats and in vitro data on rat cell lines.

ReferenceExposed animals/cell line typeExperimental designEndpoint

Hussain et al. [111]BRL 3A rat liver cell lineExposure of TiO2 particles for 24 hours in  vitro to 40 nm TiO2 particlesCytotoxicity; mitochondrial function

Trouiller et al. [13]RatsExposure of TiO2 particles (21 nm size, 75% anatase, and 25% rutile) through drinking waterDNA single and double strand breakage; chromosomal damage in vivo; DNA deletions in offspring

Kocbek et al. [112] HEK cellsEffect of TiO2 and ZnO particles on HEK cells in vitro Cytotoxicity

ENM: engineered nanomaterial; HEK cells: human embryonic kidney cells; ROS: reactive oxygen species.

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