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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014, Article ID 194680, 8 pages
Research Article

Fabrication and In Vitro Evaluation of Nanosized Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan-Based Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

1Miniaturized Medical Devices Program, Institute of Microelectronics, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A * STAR), Singapore 117685
2KALAM, Faculty of Alam Bina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
3Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Received 16 October 2013; Revised 8 January 2014; Accepted 23 January 2014; Published 27 February 2014

Academic Editor: Ping Xiao

Copyright © 2014 Tao Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Composite scaffolds based on biodegradable natural polymer and osteoconductive hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles can be promising for a variety of tissue engineering (TE) applications. This study addressed the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) porous composite scaffolds composed of HA and chitosan fabricated via thermally induced phase separation and freeze-drying technique. The scaffolds produced were subsequently characterized in terms of microstructure, porosity, and mechanical property. In vitro degradation and in vitro biological evaluation were also investigated. The scaffolds were highly porous and had interconnected pore structures. The pore sizes ranged from several microns to a few hundred microns. The incorporated HA nanoparticles were well mixed and physically coexisted with chitosan in composite scaffold structures. The addition of 10% (w/w) HA nanoparticles to chitosan enhanced the compressive mechanical properties of composite scaffold compared to pure chitosan scaffold. In vitro degradation results in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) showed slower uptake properties of composite scaffolds. Moreover, the scaffolds showed positive response to mouse fibroblast L929 cells attachment. Overall, the findings suggest that HA/chitosan composite scaffolds could be suitable for TE applications.