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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014, Article ID 350579, 14 pages
Research Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Sol-Gel Derived TiO2 Coatings Based on a Variety of Precursors and Synthesis Conditions

1Electron Microscope Laboratory, University of Environmental and Life Sciences Wroclaw, Ulica Kożuchowska 5B, 50-631 Wroclaw, Poland
2Wrocławskie Centrum Badań EIT+, Stablowicka 147 Street, 54-066 Wroclaw, Poland
3Institute of Materials Science and Applied Mechanics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Ulica Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
4Division of Biomedical Engineering and Experimental Mechanics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Ulica Lukasiewicza 7/9, 50-371 Wroclaw, Poland

Received 19 February 2014; Revised 17 April 2014; Accepted 5 May 2014; Published 1 June 2014

Academic Editor: Zhongkui Hong

Copyright © 2014 Krzysztof Marycz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The effect of synthesis way of TiO2 coatings on biocompatibility of transplanted materials using an in vitro and in vivo rat model was investigated. TiO2 layers were synthesized by a nonaqueous sol-gel dip-coating method on stainless steel 316L substrates applying two different precursors and their combination. Morphology and topography of newly formed biomaterials were determined as well as chemical composition and elemental distribution of a surface samples. In vitro tests were conducted by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on TiO2 coatings and stainless steel without coatings to assess the bioreactivity of obtained materials. A positive biological effect of TiO2/316L/1 coatings—based on titanium(IV) ethoxide—was found in both in vitro and in vivo models. The TiO2/316L/1 exhibited the highest roughness and the lowest titanium concentration in TiO2 than TiO2/316L/2—based on titanium(IV) propoxide and TiO2/316L/3—based on both above-mentioned precursors. The proper fibroblast-like morphology and higher proliferation rate of cells cultured on TiO2/316L/1 were observed when compared to the other biomaterials. No inflammatory response in the bone surrounding implant covered by each of the obtained TiO2 was present. Our results showed that improvement of routinely used stainless steel 316L with TiO2/316L/1 layer can stimulate beneficial biological response.