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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 505649, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/505649
Research Article

Influence of Pedestrian Trajectories on School Children Exposure to PM10

1Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Campus do IPS, 1910-761 Setúbal, Portugal
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science (FEPS), University of Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK
3Environmental Flow (EnFlo) Research Centre, FEPS, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK
4Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal

Received 31 March 2014; Revised 10 June 2014; Accepted 18 June 2014; Published 22 July 2014

Academic Editor: Godwin Ayoko

Copyright © 2014 João Garcia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Three pedestrian trajectories are considered to study the influence of PM10 concentrations on children exposure, in a high-traffic street canyon. Two types of exposure were calculated: daily exposure for each wind condition and cumulative annual exposure considering all wind conditions. FLUENT was used to simulate the flow, turbulence, and PM10 dispersion in the street canyon. Our results indicate that exposure is influenced by the chosen walking trajectory and wind direction. When considering daily exposure, the highest value is achieved for the trajectory on the south side of the street, under westerly wind conditions, 13% higher than the baseline that assumes no traffic. The results indicate that a particular trajectory can be better for one specific wind direction but can represent the worst for a different wind direction. A difference of 3% to 13% higher exposure was achieved by choosing the best and worst trajectories. When computing cumulative annual exposure, trajectory on the north side of the street shows better results, 8.4% higher than the baseline value. Northerly and westerly winds result in the lowest and the highest exposure value for every studied trajectory. Careful selection of the best pedestrian paths can help reduce the exposure in busy street canyons.