Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014, Article ID 608572, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/608572
Research Article

Efficient Charge Transfer Mechanism in Polyfluorene/ZnO Nanocomposite Thin Films

1School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen
3Department of Physics, Thamar University, Thamar, Yemen

Received 23 January 2014; Accepted 16 April 2014; Published 7 May 2014

Academic Editor: Tianxi Liu

Copyright © 2014 Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Padinger, R. S. Rittberger, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of postproduction treatment on plastic solar cells,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 85–88, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Q. Zhou, Q. Hou, L. Zheng, X. Deng, G. Yu, and Y. Cao, “Fluorene-based low band-gap copolymers for high performance photovoltaic devices,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 1653–1655, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5564, pp. 2425–2427, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Haarer, “Photoconductive polymers: structure, mechanisms, and properties,” Die Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 197–220, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  5. S. R. Forrest, “The road to high efficiency organic light emitting devices,” Organic Electronics: Physics, Materials, Applications, vol. 4, no. 2-3, pp. 45–48, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Li, Y. Du, Y. Chen, L. Chen, J. Zhao, and P. Wang, “Direct application of P3HT-DOPO@ZnO nanocomposites in hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells via grafting P3HT onto ZnO nanoparticles,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 97, pp. 64–70, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. P. Nguyen, C. W. Lee, S. Hassen, and H. C. Le, “Hybrid nanocomposites for optical applications,” Solid State Sciences, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1810–1814, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec et al., “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 11, pp. 3619–3623, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Controlling morphology in polymer-fullerene mixtures,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 240–245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Z. Yahya and M. Rusop, “Investigation on the optical and surface morphology of conjugated polymer MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin films,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2012, Article ID 793679, 4 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Alam, N. M. Alandis, A. A. Ansari, and M. R. Shaik, “Optical and electrical studies of polyaniline/ZnO nanocomposite,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 157810, 5 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. M. Assaka, P. C. Rodrigues, A. R. M. de Oliveira et al., “Novel fluorine containing polyfluorenes with efficient blue electroluminescence,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 21, pp. 7071–7081, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. C. Farial, T. S. Plivelic, R. F. Cossiello et al., “A multitechnique study of structure and dynamics of polyfluorene cast films and the influence on their photoluminescence,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 113, no. 33, pp. 11403–11413, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. H. H. Jumali, B. A. Al-Asbahi, C. C. Yap, M. M. Salleh, and M. S. Alsalhi, “Optoelectronic property enhancement of conjugated polymer in poly(9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl)/titania nanocomposites,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 524, pp. 257–262, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. H. H. Jumali, B. A. Al-Asbahi, C. C. Yap, M. M. Salleh, and M. S. Alsalhi, “Optical properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl)/amorphous SiO2 nanocomposite thin films,” Sains Malaysiana, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1151–1157, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Bajpai, R. Srivastava, M. N. Kamalasanan, R. S. Tiwari, and S. Chand, “Charge transport and microstructure in PFO:MEH-PPV polymer blend thin films,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 160, no. 15-16, pp. 1740–1744, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. Park, Y. Lim, S. Noh et al., “Enhanced photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanoparticle/poly(phenylene vinylene) hybrid photovoltaic cells by semiconducting surfactant,” Organic Electronics: Physics, Materials, Applications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 424–428, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Qian, Y. Zheng, K. R. Choudhury et al., “Electroluminescence from light-emitting polymer/ZnO nanoparticle heterojunctions at sub-bandgap voltages,” Nano Today, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 384–389, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Jetson, K. Yin, K. Donovan, and Z. Zhu, “Effects of surface modification on the fluorescence properties of conjugated polymer/ZnO nanocomposites,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 417–421, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Yuan, F. Li, L. Chen, and Y. Chen, “Approach to a block polymer precursor from poly(3-hexylthiophene) nitroxide-mediated in situ polymerization for stabilization of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO hybrid solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 19, pp. 6299–6306, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Chen, W. C. Yen, W. F. Su, C. H. Ku, and J. J. Wu, “Improved performance of polymer/TiO2 nanorod bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices by interface modification,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 5, Article ID 053312, 4 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
  23. A. Kathiravan and R. Renganathan, “Photosensitization of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles with phycocyanin pigment,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 335, no. 2, pp. 196–202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. Han, J. Zhang, X. Yang, H. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Synthesis and application in solar cell of poly(3-octylthiophene)/titania nanotubes composite,” Organic Electronics: Physics, Materials, Applications, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1449–1460, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Palacios, P. Formentin, E. Martinez-Ferrero, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “β-phase morphology in ordered poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) nanopillars by template wetting method,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Chen and P. Wang, “Alteration of the optical properties of poly 9,9′-dioctylfluorene by TiO2 nanocrystalline,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 352, no. 23–25, pp. 2536–2538, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. W. Hagler, K. Pakbaz, K. F. Voss, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced order and electronic delocalization in conjugated polymers oriented by gel processing in polyethylene,” Physical Review B, vol. 44, no. 16, pp. 8652–8666, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Pichler, D. A. Halliday, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Optical spectroscopy of highly ordered poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 5, no. 38, pp. 7155–7172, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. H. Huang, Y. Wu, H. Feick, N. Tran, E. Weber, and P. Yang, “Catalytic growth of zinc oxide nanowires by vapor transport,” Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 113–116, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  30. D. K. Bhat, “Facile synthesis of ZnO nanorods by microwave irradiation of zinc-hydrazine hydrate complex,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Vats, S. N. Sharma, M. Kumar et al., “Comparison of photostability, optical and structural properties of TiO2/conjugated polymer hybrid composites prepared via different methods,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 3, pp. 1100–1105, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. A. Al-Asbahi, M. H. H. Jumali, C. C. Yap, M. H. Flaifel, and M. M. Salleh, “Photophysical properties and energy transfer mechanism of PFO/Fluorol 7GA hybrid thin films,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 142, pp. 57–65, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  33. F. Ricchelli, “Photophysical properties of porphyrins in biological membranes,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 29, no. 2-3, pp. 109–118, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Zimmermann, J. von Gersdorff, H. Kurreck, and B. Röder, “Determination of the electron transfer parameters of a covalently linked porphyrin-quinone with mesogenic substituents—optical spectroscopic studies in solution,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 209–217, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus