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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014, Article ID 756401, 11 pages
Research Article

Void Structures in Regularly Patterned ZnO Nanorods Grown with the Hydrothermal Method

Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

Received 14 December 2013; Accepted 14 February 2014; Published 19 March 2014

Academic Editor: Wen Lei

Copyright © 2014 Yu-Feng Yao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The void structures and related optical properties after thermal annealing with ambient oxygen in regularly patterned ZnO nanrorod (NR) arrays grown with the hydrothermal method are studied. In increasing the thermal annealing temperature, void distribution starts from the bottom and extends to the top of an NR in the vertical (c-axis) growth region. When the annealing temperature is higher than 400°C, void distribution spreads into the lateral (m-axis) growth region. Photoluminescence measurement shows that the ZnO band-edge emission, in contrast to defect emission in the yellow-red range, is the strongest under the n-ZnO NR process conditions of 0.003 M in Ga-doping concentration and 300°C in thermal annealing temperature with ambient oxygen. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate that the concentration of hydroxyl groups in the vertical growth region is significantly higher than that in the lateral growth region. During thermal annealing, hydroxyl groups are desorbed from the NR leaving anion vacancies for reacting with cation vacancies to form voids.