Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014, Article ID 878409, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/878409
Review Article

Nanostructural Colouration in Malaysian Plants: Lessons for Biomimetics and Biomaterials

1Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraβe 8-10/134, 1040 Vienna, Austria

Received 3 September 2013; Revised 10 February 2014; Accepted 10 February 2014; Published 14 April 2014

Academic Editor: Il-Kwon Oh

Copyright © 2014 S. Zaleha M. Diah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Kinoshita, Structural Colors in the Realm of Nature, World Scientific Publishing, River Edge, NJ, USA, 2008.
  2. D. W. Lee and J. B. Lowry, “Physical basis and ecological significance of iridescence in blue plants,” Nature, vol. 254, no. 5495, pp. 50–51, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Willstätter and A. Stoll, Untersuchungen über die Assimilation der Kohlensäure, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1918.
  4. J. A. Tanno and T. R. Webster, “Variegation in Selaginella martensii f. albovariegata. I. Expression and inheritance,” Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 60, pp. 2375–2383, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  5. D. W. Lee, Nature's Palette: The Science of Plant Color, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2007.
  6. J. D. Mauseth, Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology, Jones and Bartlett, 4th edition, 2009.
  7. D. W. Lee, “On iridescent plants,” Garden’s Bulletin, vol. 30, pp. 21–29, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. M. Graham, D. W. Lee, and K. Norstog, “Physical and ultrastructural basis of blue leaf iridescence in two neotropical ferns,” The American Journal of Botany, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 198–203, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  9. K. S. Gould and D. W. Lee, “Physical and ultrastructural basis of blue leaf iridescence in four Malaysian understory plants,” The American Journal of Botany, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Zhang, T. Hayashi, M. Hosokawa, S. Yazawa, and Y. Li, “Metallic lustre and the optical mechanism generated from the leaf surface of Begonia rex Putz,” Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 213–217, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Vignolini, P. J. Rudall, A. V. Rowland et al., “Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit,” Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences, vol. 109, no. 39, pp. 15712–15715, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. W. Lee, G. T. Taylor, and A. K. Irvine, “Structural fruit coloration in Delarbrea michieana (Araliaceae),” International Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 297–300, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Yoshida, D. Ito, Y. Shinkai, and T. Kondo, “Change of color and components in sepals of chameleon hydrangea during maturation and senescence,” Phytochemistry, vol. 69, no. 18, pp. 3159–3165, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. A. Marx, “Argenteum (Arg) mutant of Pisum: genetic control and breeding behavior,” Journal of Heredity, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 413–420, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. E. Grimbly and B. J. Thomas, “Silvering, a disorder of the tomato,” Journal of Horticultural Science, vol. 52, pp. 49–57, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  16. Y. Burger, H. S. Paris, H. Nerson, Z. Karchi, and M. Edelstein, “Overcoming the silvering disorder of Cucurbita,” in Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  17. H. S. Paris, H. Nerson, and Y. Burger, “Leaf silvering of Cucurbita,” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, vol. 67, pp. 593–598, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. Kiew, Begonias of Peninsular Malaysia, Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd, Sabah, Malaysia, 2005.
  19. B. J. Glover and H. M. Whitney, “Structural colour and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment colour,” Annals of botany, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 505–511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Vukusic and D. G. Stavenga, “Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. S133–S148, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. J. H. Corner, Wayside Trees of Malaya, Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3rd edition, 1988.
  22. D. W. Lee, “Ultrastructural basis and function of iridescent blue colour of fruits in Elaeocarpus,” Nature, vol. 349, no. 6306, pp. 260–262, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. W. Lee, “Iridescent blue plants,” The American Scientist, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. E. Sultan, “Phenotypic plasticity for plant development, function and life history,” Trends in Plant Science, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 537–542, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Zobl, T. R. Martin, B. Y. Majlis, T. Schwerte, M. Schreiner, and I. C. Gebeshuber, “Structural colours in the focus of nanoengineering and the arts: survey on state-of-the art developments,” in Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Tribology, Vienna, Austria, 2011.
  26. S. Lev-Yadun, M. Inbar, I. Izhaki, G. Ne'eman, and A. Dafni, “Colour patterns in vegetative parts of plants deserve more research attention,” Trends in Plant Science, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 59–60, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. O. Matolweni, K. Balkwill, and T. McLellan, “Genetic diversity and gene flow in the morphologically variable, rare endemics Begonia dregei and Begonia homonyma (Begoniaceae),” The American Journal of Botany, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 431–439, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. R. Thomas, M. Kolle, H. M. Whitney, B. J. Glover, and U. Steiner, “Function of blue iridescence in tropical understorey plants,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 7, no. 53, pp. 1699–1707, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. I. C. Gebeshuber and D. W. Lee, “Nanostructures for coloration (organisms other than animals),” in Springer Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology, B. Bhushan and M. Nosonovsky, Eds., pp. 1790–1803, Springer, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. F. T. Mott, “Organic color,” Science, vol. 21, no. 541, pp. 323–325, 1893. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C.-R. Sheue, S.-H. Pao, L.-F. Chien, P. Chesson, and C.-I. Peng, “Natural foliar variegation without costs? The case of Begonia,” Annals of Botany, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 1065–1074, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. C. Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, vol. 2, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1873.
  33. H. Hertz, “On the relations between Maxwell's fundamental equations of the opposing electromagnetics,” Wiedemann's Annalen, vol. 23, pp. 84–103, 1884. View at Google Scholar
  34. L. Rayleigh, “On the reflection of light from regularly stratified medium,” Proceedings of Royal Society London A, vol. 93, no. 655, pp. 565–577, 1917. View at Google Scholar
  35. B. Walter, Die Oberflächen- oder Schillerfarben, Braunschweig, 1895.
  36. A. A. Michelson, “On metallic colouring in birds and insects,” Philosophical Magazine Series 6, vol. 21, no. 124, pp. 554–567, 1911. View at Google Scholar
  37. D. W. Lee, “Plant tissue optics: micro- and nanostructures,” in Biomimetics and Bioinspiration, vol. 7401 of Proceedings of SPIE, August 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Xu and Z. Guo, “Biomimetic photonic materials with tunable structural colors,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 406, pp. 1–17, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  39. I. Woo, S. Yu, J. S. Lee et al., “Plasmonic structural-color thin film with a wide reception angle and strong retro-reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2182–2188, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  40. H. D. Young and R. A. Freedman, Sears and Zemansky's University Physics: With Modern Physics, Pearson Addison Wesley, San Fancisco, Calif, USA, 11th edition, 2004.
  41. V. G. Bordo and H. G. Rubahn, Optics and Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2005.
  42. S. Y. Lee and L. Dal Negro, “Angularly independent structural color of nanostructured metal surfaces,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN '11), pp. 25–26, August 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Berthier, Iridescences : The Physical Colors of Insects, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  44. J. H. McClendon, “The micro-optics of leaves. I. Patterns of reflection from the epidermis,” The American Journal of Botany, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 1391–1397, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  45. H. M. Whitney, M. Kolle, P. Andrew, L. Chittka, U. Steiner, and B. J. Glover, “Floral iridescence, produced by diffractive optics, acts as a cue for animal pollinators,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5910, pp. 130–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, and Y. Monden, “An accurate illumination model for objects coated with multilayer films,” Computers and Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 391–400, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. P. Zhang, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. G. Kirk, and M. P. Andrews, “Structured color humidity indicator from reversible pitch tuning in self-assembled nanocrystalline cellulose films,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 176, pp. 692–697, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  48. T. Yasuda, K. Nishikawa, and S. Furukawa, “Structural colors from TiO2/SiO2 multilayer flakes prepared by sol-gel process,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 1122–1125, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Schüler, J. Boudaden, P. Oelhafen, E. de Chambrier, C. Roecker, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Thin film multilayer design types for colored glazed thermal solar collectors,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 89, no. 2-3, pp. 219–231, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. W. Wu, W. Zheng, L. Lin, Y. Qu, and F. Lai, “Colored solar selective absorbing coatings with metal Ti and dielectric AlN multilayer structure,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 115, pp. 145–150, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  51. J. H. Selj, T. T. Mongstad, R. Søndenå, and E. S. Marstein, “Reduction of optical losses in colored solar cells with multilayer antireflection coatings,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 2576–2582, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. Kinoshita, S. Hayashi, and Y. Yokogawa, “Preparation of a structural color forming system by polypeptide-based LB films,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 145, no. 1-2, pp. 101–106, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, and P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 25, pp. 2239–2245, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  54. T. J. Nevitt and M. F. Weber, “Recent advances in multilayer polymeric interference reflector products,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 532, pp. 106–112, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  55. M. H. Asghar, M. B. Khan, and S. Naseem, “Modeling thin film multilayer broad-band-pass filters in visible spectrum,” Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 1209–1217, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Z. Liu, J. Gao, B. Li, and J. Zhou, “Temperature tunable photonic band gap crystals based on liquid-infiltrated inverse opal structure,” Optical Materials, vol. 35, pp. 1134–1137, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  57. H. Li, H. Guan, P. Han, Y. Li, and C. Zhang, “Design for a broad non-transmission band gap of three-color filters using photonic heterostructures,” Optics Communications, vol. 287, pp. 162–166, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  58. H. Wang and K. Q. Zhang, “Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors,” Sensors, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 4192–4213, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  59. E. Choi, Y. Choi, Y. H. P. Nejad, K. Shin, and J. Park, “Label-free specific detection of immunoglobulin G antibody using nanoporous hydrogel photonic crystals,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 180, pp. 107–113, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. Chen and W. Liu, “Reflection and color characteristics of tri-layer metal-dielectric structures for generation of distinctive color shifts,” Optik, vol. 24, pp. 13–16, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. K. Cullen, Y. Xu, D. V. Reneer et al., “Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure,” NeuroImage, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. S37–S44, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Decher and J. B. Schlenoff, Multilayer Thin Films: Sequential Assembly of Nanocomposite Materials, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2003.
  63. H. Wang, F. Kerins, U. Kamp, L. Bonifacio, A. C. Arsenault, and G. A. Ozin, “Photonic-crystal display materials,” Information Display, vol. 27, no. 7-8, pp. 26–29, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. I. A. Sukhoivanov and I. V. Guryev, “Photonic crystal optical fibers,” Photonic Crystals, vol. 152, pp. 127–161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Schüler, D. Dutta, E. de Chambrier et al., “Sol-gel deposition and optical characterization of multilayered SiO2/Ti1−xSixO2 coatings on solar collector glasses,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 17, pp. 2894–2907, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. CIE, “C.B. CIE—International Commission on Illumination CIE Central Bureau,” 2014, http://www.cie.co.at/.
  67. J. A. Rego, J. A. A. Harvey, A. L. MacKinnon, and E. Gatdula, “Asymmetric synthesis of a highly soluble “trimeric” analogue of the chiral nematic liquid crystal twist agent Merck S1011,” Liquid Crystals, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. J. Maile, G. Pfaff, and P. Reynders, “Effect pigments—past, present and future,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 150–163, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. Yu, T. Fan, S. Lou, and D. Zhang, “Biomimetic optical materials: integration of nature’s design for manipulation of light,” Progress in Materials Science, vol. 58, pp. 825–873, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  70. P. Vukusic, “Structural colour: elusive iridescence strategies brought to light,” Current Biology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. R187–R189, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Y. Bar-Cohen, Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005.
  72. I. C. Gebeshuber, P. Gruber, and M. Drack, “A gaze into the crystal ball: biomimetics in the year 2059,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 223, no. 12, pp. 2899–2918, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. I. C. Gebeshuber, Biomimetics and Nanotechnology, UKM Press, Penerbit UKM Bangi, Bangi, Malaysia, 2011.
  74. I. C. Gebeshuber and M. O. Macqueen, “What is a physicist doing in the jungle? Biomimetics of the rainforest,” in Advances in Bionic Engineering, vol. 461 of Applied Mechanics and Materials, pp. 152–162, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus