Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015, Article ID 140716, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/140716
Review Article

Electrospinning of Nanofibers and Their Applications for Energy Devices

1Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Pingle Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100241, China
2Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, 1512 Middle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Received 11 January 2015; Revised 21 April 2015; Accepted 29 April 2015

Academic Editor: Bala Vaidhyanathan

Copyright © 2015 Xiaomin Shi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. K. Chan, R. N. Patel, M. J. O'Connell, B. A. Korgel, and Y. Cui, “Solution-grown silicon nanowires for lithium-ion battery anodes,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1443–1450, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J.-K. Yoo, J. Kim, Y. S. Jung, and K. Kang, “Scalable fabrication of silicon nanotubes and their application to energy storage,” Advanced Materials, vol. 24, no. 40, pp. 5452–5456, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. H. Lee, M. Y. Song, S.-Y. Jang, S. M. Jo, S.-Y. Kwak, and D. Y. Kim, “Charge transport characteristics of high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun TiO2 nanorod photoelectrodes,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 51, pp. 21453–21457, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Liu, J. Goebl, and Y. Yin, “Templated synthesis of nanostructured materials,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 2610–2653, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Chi, Y. Zhao, Q. Fan, and W. Han, “The synthesis of PrB6 nanowires and nanotubes by the self-catalyzed method,” Ceramics International, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 8921–8924, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. I. Kovtyukhova, B. R. Martin, J. K. N. Mbindyo, T. E. Mallouk, M. Cabassi, and T. S. Mayer, “Layer-by-layer self-assembly strategy for template synthesis of nanoscale devices,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 19, no. 1-2, pp. 255–262, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Zhu, X. Gao, Y. Lan, D. Song, Y. Xi, and J. Zhao, “Hydrogen titanate nanofibers covered with anatase nanocrystals: a delicate structure achieved by the wet chemistry reaction of the titanate nanofibers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 27, pp. 8380–8381, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Formalas, US Patent 1975504, 1934.
  9. Z. Sun, E. Zussman, A. L. Yarin, J. H. Wendorff, and A. Greiner, “Compound core–shell polymer nanofibers by co-electrospinning,” Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 22, pp. 1929–1932, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Srivastava, I. Loscertales, M. Marquez, and T. Thorsen, “Electrospinning of hollow and core/sheath nanofibers using a microfluidic manifold,” Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 245–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W.-E. Teo, R. Gopal, R. Ramaseshan, K. Fujihara, and S. Ramakrishna, “A dynamic liquid support system for continuous electrospun yarn fabrication,” Polymer, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 3400–3405, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Jayaraman, V. Aravindan, P. Suresh Kumar, W. C. Ling, S. Ramakrishna, and S. Madhavi, “Synthesis of porous LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers by electrospinning with extraordinary lithium storage properties,” Chemical Communications, vol. 49, no. 59, pp. 6677–6679, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. W. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. S. Khil, Y. S. Ho, and H. Y. Kim, “The effect of molecular weight and the linear velocity of drum surface on the properties of electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwovens,” Fibers and Polymers, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 122–127, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Dersch, T. Liu, A. K. Schaper, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Electrospun nanofibers: internal structure and intrinsic orientation,” Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 545–553, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Li, Y. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Electrospinning of polymeric and ceramic nanofibers as uniaxially aligned arrays,” Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 1167–1171, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Ramakrishna, R. Jose, P. S. Archana et al., “Science and engineering of electrospun nanofibers for advances in clean energy, water filtration, and regenerative medicine,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 45, no. 23, pp. 6283–6312, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Sun, J. Shi, D. J. Bayerl, and X. Wang, “PVDF microbelts for harvesting energy from respiration,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 4508–4512, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Hwang, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, V. Armel, D. R. MacFarlane, and S.-Y. Jang, “High-efficiency, solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells using hierarchically structured TiO2 nanofibers,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1521–1527, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Liang, D. Wu, and R. Fu, “Carbon microfibers with hierarchical porous structure from electrospun fiber-like natural biopolymer,” Scientific Reports, vol. 3, article 1119, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Li and Y. Xia, “Direct fabrication of composite and ceramic hollow nanofibers by electrospinning,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 933–938, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. Thavasi, G. Singh, and S. Ramakrishna, “Electrospun nanofibers in energy and environmental applications,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 205–221, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Zhang, V. Aravindan, P. S. Kumar et al., “Synthesis of TiO2 hollow nanofibers by co-axial electrospinning and its superior lithium storage capability in full-cell assembly with olivine phosphate,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 5973–5980, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Sun, C. Chang, S. Li, and L. Lin, “Near-field electrospinning,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 839–842, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Di Camillo, V. Fasano, F. Ruggieri et al., “Near-field electrospinning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibers,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 23, pp. 11637–11642, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Chang, K. Limkrailassiri, and L. Lin, “Continuous near-field electrospinning for large area deposition of orderly nanofiber patterns,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 12, Article ID 123111, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. S. Bisht, G. Canton, A. Mirsepassi et al., “Controlled continuous patterning of polymeric nanofibers on three-dimensional substrates using low-voltage near-field electrospinning,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1831–1837, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F.-L. Zhou, P. L. Hubbard, S. J. Eichhorn, and G. J. M. Parker, “Jet deposition in near-field electrospinning of patterned polycaprolactone and sugar-polycaprolactone core-shell fibres,” Polymer, vol. 52, no. 16, pp. 3603–3610, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Y. S. Huang, E. M. Terentjev, T. Oppenheim, S. P. Lacour, and M. E. Welland, “Fabrication and electromechanical characterization of near-field electrospun composite fibers,” Nanotechnology, vol. 23, no. 10, Article ID 105305, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. S. Engstrom, B. Porter, M. Pacios, and H. Bhaskaran, “Additive nanomanufacturing—a review,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 29, no. 17, pp. 1792–1816, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. J. U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang et al., “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nature Materials, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 782–789, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Mishra, K. L. Barton, A. G. Alleyne, P. M. Ferreira, and J. A. Rogers, “High-speed and drop-on-demand printing with a pulsed electrohydrodynamic jet,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 20, no. 9, Article ID 095026, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Wang and J. P. W. Stark, “Deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles by fully pulsed-voltage- controlled electrohydrodynamic atomisation,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 707–711, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Galliker, J. Schneider, H. Eghlidi, S. Kress, V. Sandoghdar, and D. Poulikakos, “Direct printing of nanostructures by electrostatic autofocussing of ink nanodroplets,” Nature Communications, vol. 3, article 890, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Yao, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Wang, C. Deng, and F. Cui, “Effects of ambient relative humidity and solvent properties on the electrospinning of pure hyaluronic acid nanofibers,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 4752–4758, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. A. Theron, E. Zussman, and A. L. Yarin, “Experimental investigation of the governing parameters in the electrospinning of polymer solutions,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 2017–2030, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. de Vrieze, T. van Camp, A. Nelvig, B. Hagström, P. Westbroek, and K. de Clerck, “The effect of temperature and humidity on electrospinning,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1357–1362, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. G. McKee, G. L. Wilkes, R. H. Colby, and T. E. Long, “Correlations of solution rheology with electrospun fiber formation of linear and branched polyesters,” Macromolecules, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1760–1767, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Casasola, N. L. Thomas, A. Trybala, and S. Georgiadou, “Electrospun poly lactic acid (PLA) fibres: effect of different solvent systems on fibre morphology and diameter,” Polymer, vol. 55, no. 18, pp. 4728–4737, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. Q. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Hong et al., “Influence of solvents on the formation of ultrathin uniform poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) nanofibers with electrospinning,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 42, no. 20, pp. 3721–3726, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. B. Mitchell and J. E. Sanders, “A unique device for controlled electrospinning,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 110–120, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. K. Son, J. H. Youk, T. S. Lee, and W. H. Park, “The effects of solution properties and polyelectrolyte on electrospinning of ultrafine poly(ethylene oxide) fibers,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 2959–2966, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. W. Zuo, M. Zhu, W. Yang, H. Yu, Y. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Experimental study on relationship between jet instability and formation of beaded fibers during electrospinning,” Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 704–709, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. X. Yuan, Y. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Sheng, “Morphology of ultrafine polysulfone fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polymer International, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1704–1710, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. O. S. Yördem, M. Papila, and Y. Z. Menceloğlu, “Effects of electrospinning parameters on polyacrylonitrile nanofiber diameter: an investigation by response surface methodology,” Materials & Design, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 34–44, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. K. Baumgarten, “Electrostatic spinning of acrylic microfibers,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 71–79, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Doshi and D. H. Reneker, “Electrospinning process and applications of electrospun fibers,” in Proceedings of the Conference Record of the IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, vol. 3, pp. 1698–1703, IEEE, Toronto, Canada, October 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. A. Hu and A. Apblett, Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2014.
  48. N. Bhardwaj and S. C. Kundu, “Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 325–347, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. S. Lee, K. H. Choi, H. D. Ghim et al., “Role of molecular weight of atactic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in the structure and properties of PVA nanofabric prepared by electrospinning,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1638–1646, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Yang, Z. Jia, Z. Guan, and L. Wang, “Polyvinylidene fluoride membrane by novel electrospinning system for separator of Li-ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 716–720, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D.-K. Kim, S. H. Park, B. C. Kim, B. D. Chin, S. M. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Electrospun polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers and their hydrogen storages,” Macromolecular Research, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 521–528, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y.-Z. Long, M.-M. Li, C. Gu et al., “Recent advances in synthesis, physical properties and applications of conducting polymer nanotubes and nanofibers,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1415–1442, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. S. Kumar, J. Sundaramurthy, S. Sundarrajan et al., “Hierarchical electrospun nanofibers for energy harvesting, production and environmental remediation,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3192–3222, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. P. Peng, A. Hu, H. Huang, A. P. Gerlich, B. Zhao, and Y. N. Zhou, “Room-temperature pressureless bonding with silver nanowire paste: towards organic electronic and heat-sensitive functional devices packaging,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 26, pp. 12997–13001, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. Z. Li, A. Hu, T. Zhang, and K. D. Oakes, “Direct writing on paper of foldable capacitive touch pads with silver nanowire inks,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 23, pp. 21721–21729, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. A. Hu, X. Zhang, K. D. Oakes, P. Peng, Y. N. Zhou, and M. R. Servos, “Hydrothermal growth of free standing TiO2 nanowire membranes for photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceuticals,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 189, no. 1-2, pp. 278–285, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Hu, R. Liang, X. Zhang et al., “Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes by TiO2 nanobelts with hierarchical structures,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 256, pp. 7–15, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. B. Lakshmi, P. K. Dorhout, and C. R. Martin, “Sol-gel template synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 857–862, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Rodríguez-Reyes and H. J. Dorantes-Rosales, “A simple route to obtain TiO2 nanowires by the sol-gel method,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 658–661, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Z. Dong, S. J. Kennedy, and Y. Wu, “Electrospinning materials for energy-related applications and devices,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 11, pp. 4886–4904, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. X. Zhang, G. H. Li, Y. X. Jin, J. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescence of TiO2 nanowires,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 365, no. 3-4, pp. 300–304, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, “A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 676–677, 1954. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Chuangchote, T. Sagawa, and S. Yoshikawa, “Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells using electrospun TiO2 nanofibers as a light harvesting layer,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 3, Article ID 033310, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Cavaliere, S. Subianto, I. Savych, D. J. Jones, and J. Rozière, “Electrospinning: designed architectures for energy conversion and storage devices,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 4761–4785, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Fang, X. Wang, and T. Lin, “Functional applications of electrospun nanofibers,” in Nanofibers—Production, Properties and Functional Applications, pp. 287–326, InTech, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  66. K. Mukherjee, T.-H. Teng, R. Jose, and S. Ramakrishna, “Electron transport in electrospun TiO2 nanofiber dye-sensitized solar cells,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95, no. 1, Article ID 012101, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. Y. Li, D.-K. Lee, J. Y. Kim et al., “Highly durable and flexible dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated on plastic substrates: PVDF-nanofiber-reinforced TiO2 photoelectrodes,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 8950–8957, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. Krysova, J. Trckova-Barakova, J. Prochazka, A. Zukal, J. Maixner, and L. Kavan, “Titania nanofiber photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Catalysis Today, vol. 230, pp. 234–239, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. Fujihara, A. Kumar, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, and S. Uchida, “Spray deposition of electrospun TiO2 nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 36, Article ID 365709, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Y. Song, D. K. Kim, K. J. Ihn, S. M. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Electrospun TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nanotechnology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1861–1865, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. V. Thavasi, V. Renugopalakrishnan, R. Jose, and S. Ramakrishna, “Controlled electron injection and transport at materials interfaces in dye sensitized solar cells,” Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 81–99, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. C. L. Zhang and S. H. Yu, “Nanoparticles meet electrospinning: recent advances and future prospects,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 43, no. 13, pp. 4423–4448, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. X. Wang, M. Xi, H. Fong, and Z. Zhu, “Flexible, transferable, and thermal-durable dye-sensitized solar cell photoanode consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles and electrospun TiO2/SiO2 nanofibers,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 18, pp. 15925–15932, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. L. Yang and W. W.-F. Leung, “Application of a bilayer TiO2 nanofiber photoanode for optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Advanced Materials, vol. 23, no. 39, pp. 4559–4562, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H.-J. Koo, Y. J. Kim, Y. H. Lee, W. I. Lee, K. Kim, and N.-G. Park, “Nano-embossed hollow spherical TiO2 as bifunctional material for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 195–199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. I. Jeong, J. Lee, K. V. Joseph, H. I. Lee, J. K. Kim, and S. Yoon, “Low-cost electrospun WC/C composite nanofiber as a powerful platinum-free counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cell,” Nano Energy, vol. 9, pp. 392–400, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. M. Grätzel, “Dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 145–153, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. V.-D. Dao, N. T. Q. Hoa, L. L. Larina, J.-K. Lee, and H.-S. Choi, “Graphene-platinum nanohybrid as a robust and low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 24, pp. 12237–12244, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Wu, X. Lin, A. Hagfeldt, and T. Ma, “Low-cost molybdenum carbide and tungsten carbide counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 50, no. 15, pp. 3520–3524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Jo, J. Y. Cheon, J. Yu et al., “Highly interconnected ordered mesoporous carbon-carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Pt-free, highly efficient, and durable counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chemical Communications, vol. 48, no. 65, pp. 8057–8059, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. W. J. Lee, E. Ramasamy, D. Y. Lee, and J. S. Song, “Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with catalytic multiwall carbon nanotube counter electrodes,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1145–1149, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. Joshi, L. Zhang, Q. Chen, D. Galipeau, H. Fong, and Q. Qiao, “Electrospun carbon nanofibers as low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 3572–3577, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. I. Noh, T.-Y. Seong, and H.-J. Ahn, “Carbon nanofibers combined with Pt nanoparticles for use as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Ceramic Processing Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 491–494, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. S. Mali, P. S. Patil, and C. K. Hong, “Low-cost electrospun highly crystalline kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanofiber counter electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1688–1696, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. Yella, H.-W. Lee, H. N. Tsao et al., “Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6056, pp. 629–634, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. K. Ahn, T. Ban, P. Sakthivel et al., “Development of dye-sensitized solar cells composed of liquid crystal embedded, electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) nanofibers as polymer gel electrolytes,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 2096–2100, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J. E. Moser, M. K. Nazeeruddin, T. Sekiguchi, and M. Grätzel, “A stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with an amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer and polymer gel electrolyte,” Nature Materials, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 402–407, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J.-U. Kim, S.-H. Park, H.-J. Choi, W.-K. Lee, J.-K. Lee, and M.-R. Kim, “Effect of electrolyte in electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) nanofibers on dye-sensitized solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 6-7, pp. 803–807, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. Sethupathy, S. Ravichandran, and P. Manisankar, “Preparation of PVdF-PAN-V2O5 hybrid composite membrane by electrospinning and fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells,” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 3166–3180, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. H. Joo, S. J. Choi, I. Oh et al., “Ordered nanoporous arrays of carbon supporting high dispersions of platinum nanoparticles,” Nature, vol. 412, no. 6843, pp. 169–172, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J.-Y. Jhan, Y.-W. Huang, C.-H. Hsu, H. Teng, D. Kuo, and P.-L. Kuo, “Three-dimensional network of graphene grown with carbon nanotubes as carbon support for fuel cells,” Energy, vol. 53, pp. 282–287, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Kang, S. Lim, D.-H. Peck et al., “Stability and durability of PtRu catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers for direct methanol fuel cells,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 4685–4693, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. Z.-G. Zhao, Z.-J. Yao, J. Zhang, R. Zhu, Y. Jin, and Q.-W. Li, “Rational design of galvanically replaced Pt-anchored electrospun WO3 nanofibers as efficient electrode materials for methanol oxidation,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 32, pp. 16514–16519, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. W. J. Kim and J. Y. Chang, “Molecularly imprinted polyimide nanofibers prepared by electrospinning,” Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 1388–1391, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. D. Chen, Y.-E. Miao, and T. Liu, “Electrically conductive polyaniline/polyimide nanofiber membranes prepared via a combination of electrospinning and subsequent in situ polymerization growth,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1206–1212, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. F.-J. Liu, L.-M. Huang, T.-C. Wen, and A. Gopalan, “Large-area network of polyaniline nanowires supported platinum nanocatalysts for methanol oxidation,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 157, no. 16-17, pp. 651–658, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. M. Inagaki, Y. Yang, and F. Kang, “Carbon nanofibers prepared via electrospinning,” Advanced Materials, vol. 24, no. 19, pp. 2547–2566, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. Li, G. Han, and B. Yang, “Fabrication of the catalytic electrodes for methanol oxidation on electrospinning-derived carbon fibrous mats,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 880–883, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. Li, S. Zhao, G. Han, and B. Yang, “Electrospinning-derived carbon fibrous mats improving the performance of commercial Pt/C for methanol oxidation,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 351–356, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Q. Guo, D. Zhao, S. Liu, S. Chen, M. Hanif, and H. Hou, “Free-standing nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes at electrospun carbon nanofibers composite as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 138, pp. 318–324, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. A. S. Aricò, V. Baglio, and V. Antonucci, “Direct methanol fuel cells: history, status and perspectives,” in Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, H. Liu and J. Zhang, Eds., pp. 1–78, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  102. J. Choi, K. M. Lee, R. Wycisk, P. N. Pintauro, and P. T. Mather, “Nanofiber composite membranes with low equivalent weight perfluorosulfonic acid polymers,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 30, pp. 6282–6290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. H. Chen, J. D. Snyder, and Y. A. Elabd, “Electrospinning and solution properties of Nafion and poly(acrylic acid),” Macromolecules, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 128–135, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. S. Mollá and V. Compañ, “Polyvinyl alcohol nanofiber reinforced Nafion membranes for fuel cell applications,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 372, no. 1-2, pp. 191–200, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. B. Ballengee and P. N. Pintauro, “Morphological control of electrospun nafion nanofiber mats,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 158, no. 5, pp. B568–B572, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. B. Dong, L. Gwee, D. S.-D. La Cruz, K. I. Winey, and Y. A. Elabd, “Super proton conductive high-purity nafion nanofibers,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3785–3790, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. T. Tamura and H. Kawakami, “Aligned electrospun nanofiber composite membranes for fuel cell electrolytes,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1324–1328, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. U. H. Jung, K. T. Park, E. H. Park, and S. H. Kim, “Improvement of low-humidity performance of PEMFC by addition of hydrophilic SiO2 particles to catalyst layer,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 529–532, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. E. Chalkova, M. B. Pague, M. V. Fedkin, D. J. Wesolowski, and S. N. Lvov, “Nafion/TiO2 proton conductive composite membranes for PEMFCs operating at elevated temperature and reduced relative humidity,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. A1035–A1040, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. E. Chalkova, M. V. Fedkin, S. Komarneni, and S. N. Lvov, “Nafion/zirconium phosphate composite membranes for PEMFC operating at up to 120°C and down to 13% RH,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. B288–B295, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. F.-R. Fan, L. Lin, G. Zhu, W. Wu, R. Zhang, and Z. L. Wang, “Transparent triboelectric nanogenerators and self-powered pressure sensors based on micropatterned plastic films,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 3109–3114, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. K.-I. Park, S. Xu, Y. Liu et al., “Piezoelectric BaTiO3 thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 4939–4943, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. B. Kumar and S.-W. Kim, “Recent advances in power generation through piezoelectric nanogenerators,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 47, pp. 18946–18958, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. J. Chang, M. Dommer, C. Chang, and L. Lin, “Piezoelectric nanofibers for energy scavenging applications,” Nano Energy, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 356–371, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. C. Chang, V. H. Tran, J. Wang, Y.-K. Fuh, and L. Lin, “Direct-write piezoelectric polymeric nanogenerator with high energy conversion efficiency,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 726–731, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. Fang, X. Wang, and T. Lin, “Electrical power generator from randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibre membranes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 30, pp. 11088–11091, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. X. Chen, S. Xu, N. Yao, and Y. Shi, “1.6 v nanogenerator for mechanical energy harvesting using PZT nanofibers,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2133–2137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. G. Zhang, S. Xu, and Y. Shi, “Electromechanical coupling of lead zirconate titanate nanofibres,” Micro & Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature, vol. 238, no. 5358, pp. 37–38, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. N. Ghows and M. H. Entezari, “Sono-synthesis of core-shell nanocrystal (CdS/TiO2) without surfactant,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1070–1078, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. R. S. Khnayzer, L. B. Thompson, M. Zamkov et al., “Photocatalytic hydrogen production at titania-supported Pt nanoclusters that are derived from surface-anchored molecular precursors,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 1429–1438, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. S. K. Choi, S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and H. Park, “Photocatalytic comparison of TiO2 nanoparticles and electrospun TiO2 nanofibers: Effects of mesoporosity and interparticle charge transfer,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 39, pp. 16475–16480, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. R. Zhang, H. Wu, D. Lin, and W. Pan, “Preparation of necklace-structured TiO2/SnO2 hybrid nanofibers and their photocatalytic activity,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 2463–2466, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. X. Xu, G. Yang, J. Liang et al., “Fabrication of one-dimensional heterostructured TiO2@SnO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. S. S. Lee, H. Bai, Z. Liu, and D. D. Sun, “Optimization and an insightful properties—activity study of electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for efficient photocatalytic H2 generation,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 140-141, pp. 68–81, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. F.-X. Xiao, “Construction of highly ordered ZnO-TiO2 nanotube arrays (ZnO/TNTs) heterostructure for photocatalytic application,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 7055–7063, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. Y. Wang, Y. R. Su, L. Qiao et al., “Synthesis of one-dimensional TiO2/V2O5 branched heterostructures and their visible light photocatalytic activity towards Rhodamine B,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 22, Article ID 225702, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. Y. Tong, X. Lu, W. Sun, G. Nie, L. Yang, and C. Wang, “Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers supported Ag/Pd nanoparticles for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 261, pp. 221–226, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. Kim, A. Razzaq, Y. K. Kim, S. Kim, and S. In, “Synthesis and characterization of platinum modified TiO2-embedded carbon nanofibers for solar hydrogen generation,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, no. 93, pp. 51286–51293, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. H. Bai, Z. Liu, and D. D. Sun, “Facile fabrication of TiO2/SrTiO3 composite nanofibers by electrospinning for high efficient H2 generation,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 942–949, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. Y. Liu, L. Zhao, M. Li, and L. Guo, “TiO2/CdSe core–shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” Nanoscale, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 7397–7404, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. L. Mai, L. Xu, C. Han et al., “Electrospun ultralong hierarchical vanadium oxide nanowires with high performance for lithium ion batteries,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 4750–4755, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. Y. L. Cheah, N. Gupta, S. S. Pramana, V. Aravindan, G. Wee, and M. Srinivasan, “Morphology, structure and electrochemical properties of single phase electrospun vanadium pentoxide nanofibers for lithium ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 15, pp. 6465–6472, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. O. Toprakci, L. Ji, Z. Lin, H. A. K. Toprakci, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication and electrochemical characteristics of electrospun LiFePO4/carbon composite fibers for lithium-ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 18, pp. 7692–7699, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. C. Zhu, Y. Yu, L. Gu, K. Weichert, and J. Maier, “Electrospinning of highly electroactive carbon-coated single-crystalline LiFePO4 nanowires,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 50, no. 28, pp. 6278–6282, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. C. Kim, K. S. Yang, M. Kojima et al., “Fabrication of electrospinning-derived carbon nanofiber webs for the anode material of lithium-ion secondary batteries,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 2393–2397, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. H. S. Choi, J. G. Lee, H. Y. Lee, S. W. Kim, and C. R. Park, “Effects of surrounding confinements of Si nanoparticles on Si-based anode performance for lithium ion batteries,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 790–796, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. Y. Yu, Q. Yang, D. Teng, X. Yang, and S. Ryu, “Reticular Sn nanoparticle-dispersed PAN-based carbon nanofibers for anode material in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1187–1190, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. Z. Lin, L. Ji, M. D. Woodroof, and X. Zhang, “Electrodeposited MnOx/carbon nanofiber composites for use as anode materials in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 195, no. 15, pp. 5025–5031, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. L. Li, S. Peng, Y. Cheah et al., “Electrospun hierarchical CaCo2O4 nanofibers with excellent lithium storage properties,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 44, pp. 14823–14830, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. H. Lee, M. Alcoutlabi, J. V. Watson, and X. Zhang, “Electrospun nanofiber-coated separator membranes for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 1939–1951, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. Y. Liang, S. Cheng, J. Zhao et al., “Heat treatment of electrospun Polyvinylidene fluoride fibrous membrane separators for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 240, pp. 204–211, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. S. Jayaraman, V. Aravindan, P. S. Kumar, W. C. Ling, S. Ramakrishna, and S. Madhavi, “Exceptional performance of TiNb2O7 anode in all one-dimensional architecture by electrospinning,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 8660–8666, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. M. Yanilmaz, M. Dirican, and X. Zhang, “Evaluation of electrospun SiO2/nylon 6,6 nanofiber membranes as a thermally-stable separator for lithium-ion batteries,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 133, pp. 501–508, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. C. Kim, B. T. N. Ngoc, K. S. Yang et al., “Self-sustained thin Webs consisting of porous carbon nanofibers for supercapacitors via the electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile solutions containing zinc chloride,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 2341–2346, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. E. Han, D. Wu, S. Qi et al., “Incorporation of silver nanoparticles into the bulk of the electrospun ultrafine polyimide nanofibers via a direct ion exchange self-metallization process,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 2583–2590, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. J. Li, E.-H. Liu, W. Li, X.-Y. Meng, and S.-T. Tan, “Nickel/carbon nanofibers composite electrodes as supercapacitors prepared by electrospinning,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 478, no. 1-2, pp. 371–374, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. G.-H. An and H.-J. Ahn, “Activated porous carbon nanofibers using Sn segregation for high-performance electrochemical capacitors,” Carbon, vol. 65, pp. 87–96, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. S.-H. Choi, T.-S. Hyun, H. Lee, S.-Y. Jang, S.-G. Oh, and I.-D. Kim, “Facile synthesis of highly conductive platinum nanofiber mats as conducting core for high rate redox supercapacitor,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. A65–A68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. J.-B. Lee, S.-Y. Jeong, W.-J. Moon, T.-Y. Seong, and H.-J. Ahn, “Preparation and characterization of electro-spun RuO2-Ag2O composite nanowires for electrochemical capacitors,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509, no. 11, pp. 4336–4340, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. S. Chaudhari, Y. Sharma, P. S. Archana et al., “Electrospun polyaniline nanofibers web electrodes for supercapacitors,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 1660–1668, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. A. D. Lucking, L. Pan, D. L. Narayanan, and C. E. B. Clifford, “Effect of expanded graphite lattice in exfoliated graphite nanofibers on hydrogen storage,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 26, pp. 12710–12717, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. Z. Kurban, Electrospun nanostructured composite fibres for hydrogen storage applications [Doctoral thesis], Department of Physics and Astronomy University College, London, UK, 2011.
  154. P. E. de Jongh and P. Adelhelm, “Nanosizing and nanoconfinement: new strategies towards meeting hydrogen storage goals,” ChemSusChem, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1332–1348, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  155. M. Fichtner, “Nanoconfinement effects in energy storage materials,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 13, no. 48, pp. 21186–21195, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  156. T. K. Nielsen, F. Besenbacher, and T. R. Jensen, “Nanoconfined hydrides for energy storage,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, pp. 2086–2098, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  157. G. Xia, D. Li, X. Chen et al., “Carbon-coated Li3N nanofibers for advanced hydrogen storage,” Advanced Materials, vol. 25, no. 43, pp. 6238–6244, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. J. Alipour, A. M. Shoushtari, and A. Kaflou, “Electrospun PMMA/AB nanofiber composites for hydrogen storage applications,” e-Polymers, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 305–311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar