Cellulose Nanocrystals Obtained from Rice By-Products and Their Binding Potential to Metallic Ions
Analyses of nanoparticles size and cellulose nanocrystals-metal interaction imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Representative AFM topographic images of the metal stock solution without, (a), (b), and (c) for Na(I), Cd(II), and Al(III), respectively, and with the CNC in aqueous suspension, (d), (e), and (f) for Na(I), Cd(II), and Al(III), respectively. Below each AFM image is its correspondent particle height distribution histogram and the average particle height is also noted. The metal ion samples formed nanostructures which are observed at the background in different extents when in the CNCs presence, according to the amount of metal that bound to the CNCs. All AFM measurements were performed by dynamic mode in order to minimize tip-particle lateral interaction.