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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015, Article ID 820764, 7 pages
Research Article

Surface Morphology and Growth of Anodic Titania Nanotubes Films: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Studies

Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Institute of Postgraduate Studies (IPS), University of Malaya, 3rd Floor, Block A, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 29 September 2014; Revised 23 November 2014; Accepted 19 June 2015

Academic Editor: Jinmei He

Copyright © 2015 Chin Wei Lai. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Design and development of one-dimensional nanoarchitecture titania (TiO) assemblies have gained significant scientific interest, which have become the most studied material as they exhibit promising functional properties. In the present study, anodic TiO2 films with different surface morphologies can be synthesized in an organic electrolyte of ethylene glycol (EG) by controlling an optimum content of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) using electrochemical anodization technique. Based on the results obtained, well-aligned and bundle-free TiO2 nanotube arrays with diameter of 100 nm and length of 8 µm were successfully synthesized in EG electrolyte containing ≈5 wt% of NH4F for 1 h at 60 V. However, formation of nanoporous structure and compact oxide layer would be favored if the content of NH4F was less than 5 wt%. In the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting studies, well-aligned TiO2 nanotubular structure exhibited higher photocurrent density of ≈1 mA/cm2 with photoconversion efficiency of ≈2% as compared to the nanoporous and compact oxide layer due to the higher active surface area for the photon absorption to generate more photo-induced electrons during photoexcitation stage.