Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5959162, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5959162
Research Article

Structural Stability of Functionalized Silicene Nanoribbons with Normal, Reconstructed, and Hybrid Edges

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174, USA
2Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174, USA

Received 21 March 2016; Accepted 28 August 2016

Academic Editor: Yasuhiko Hayashi

Copyright © 2016 Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov et al., “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5696, pp. 666–669, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov et al., “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7065, pp. 197–200, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett et al., “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7100, pp. 282–286, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. Schwierz, “Graphene transistors,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 487–496, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X. Miao, S. Tongay, M. K. Petterson et al., “High efficiency graphene solar cells by chemical doping,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 2745–2750, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. J. Liu, L. Chen, P. Zhou et al., “Chemical-vapor-deposited graphene as charge storage layer in flash memory device,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2016, Article ID 6751497, 6 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. L. Zhang, J. Liu, and H. J. Choi, “Graphene and graphene oxide composites and their electrorheological applications,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Article ID 574637, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X. Li, J. Shi, J. Pang, W. Liu, H. Liu, and X. Wang, “Graphene channel liquid container field effect transistor as pH sensor,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2014, Article ID 547139, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Akbari, R. Yusof, M. T. Ahmadi et al., “Bilayer graphene application on NO2 sensor modelling,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2014, Article ID 534105, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Kara, H. Enriquez, A. P. Seitsonen et al., “A review on silicene—new candidate for electronics,” Surface Science Reports, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao et al., “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 2898–2926, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 3766–3798, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Houssa, A. Dimoulas, and A. Molle, “Silicene: a review of recent experimental and theoretical investigations,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 27, no. 25, Article ID 253002, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Zhuang, X. Xu, H. Feng, Z. Li, X. Wang, and Y. Du, “Honeycomb silicon: a review of silicene,” Science Bulletin, vol. 60, no. 18, pp. 1551–1562, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. X.-Q. Wang, H.-D. Li, and J.-T. Wang, “Induced ferromagnetism in one-side semihydrogenated silicene and germanene,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3031–3036, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F.-B. Zheng and C.-W. Zhang, “The electronic and magnetic properties of functionalized silicene: a first-principles study,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 7, article 422, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C.-C. Liu, W. Feng, and Y. Yao, “Quantum spin Hall effect in silicene and two-dimensional germanium,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 107, no. 7, Article ID 076802, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Chen, B. Feng, and K. Wu, “Observation of a possible superconducting gap in silicene on Ag(111) surface,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, no. 8, Article ID 081602, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Takeda and K. Shiraishi, “Theoretical possibility of stage corrugation in Si and Ge analogs of graphite,” Physical Review B, vol. 50, no. 20, pp. 14916–14922, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. G. Guzmán-Verri and L. C. Lew Yan Voon, “Electronic structure of silicon-based nanostructures,” Physical Review B, vol. 76, no. 7, Article ID 075131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Vogt, P. De Padova, C. Quaresima et al., “Silicene: compelling experimental evidence for graphenelike two-dimensional silicon,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 15, Article ID 155501, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. B. Feng, Z. Ding, S. Meng et al., “Evidence of silicene in honeycomb structures of silicon on Ag(111),” Nano Letters, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 3507–3511, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. J. Mannix, B. Kiraly, B. L. Fisher, M. C. Hersam, and N. P. Guisinger, “Silicon growth at the two-dimensional limit on Ag(111),” ACS Nano, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 7538–7547, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Meng, Y. Wang, L. Zhang et al., “Buckled silicene formation on Ir(111),” Nano Letters, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 685–690, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Fleurence, R. Friedlein, T. Ozaki, H. Kawai, Y. Wang, and Y. Yamada-Takamura, “Experimental evidence for epitaxial silicene on diboride thin films,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 24, Article ID 245501, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Aizawa, S. Suehara, and S. Otani, “Silicene on zirconium carbide (111),” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 118, no. 40, pp. 23049–23057, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Lebègue and O. Eriksson, “Electronic structure of two-dimensional crystals from ab initio theory,” Physical Review B—Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 79, no. 11, Article ID 115409, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Şahin, S. Cahangirov, M. Topsakal et al., “Monolayer honeycomb structures of group-IV elements and III-V binary compounds: first-principles calculations,” Physical Review B, vol. 80, no. 15, Article ID 155453, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Chen, C.-C. Liu, B. Feng et al., “Evidence for Dirac fermions in a honeycomb lattice based on silicon,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 109, no. 5, Article ID 056804, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Cahangirov, M. Topsakal, E. Aktürk, H. Şahin, and S. Ciraci, “Two- and one-dimensional honeycomb structures of silicon and germanium,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 102, no. 23, Article ID 236804, 4 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Ezawa, “Valley-polarized metals and quantum anomalous hall effect in silicene,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 109, no. 5, Article ID 055502, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W.-F. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-R. Chang, H. Lin, H.-T. Jeng, and A. Bansil, “Gated silicene as a tunable source of nearly 100% spin-polarized electrons,” Nature Communications, vol. 4, article 1500, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Liu, J. Gao, and J. Zhao, “Silicene on substrates: a way to preserve or tune its electronic properties,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 117, no. 20, pp. 10353–10359, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Z. Ni, H. Zhong, X. Jiang et al., “Tunable band gap and doping type in silicene by surface adsorption: towards tunneling transistors,” Nanoscale, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 7609–7618, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Tao, E. Cinquanta, D. Chiappe et al., “Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 227–231, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Sadeghi, S. Bailey, and C. J. Lambert, “Silicene-based DNA nucleobase sensing,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, no. 10, Article ID 103104, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. G. Amorim and R. H. Scheicher, “Silicene as a new potential DNA sequencing device,” Nanotechnology, vol. 26, no. 15, Article ID 154002, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. Aufray, A. Kara, Ś. Vizzini et al., “Graphene-like silicon nanoribbons on Ag(110): a possible formation of silicene,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 96, no. 18, Article ID 183102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. De Padova, C. Quaresima, C. Ottaviani et al., “Evidence of graphene-like electronic signature in silicene nanoribbons,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 96, no. 26, Article ID 261905, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. De Padova, O. Kubo, B. Olivieri et al., “Multilayer silicene nanoribbons,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 5500–5503, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. R. Tchalala, H. Enriquez, A. J. Mayne et al., “Formation of one-dimensional self-assembled silicon nanoribbons on Au(110)-(2×1),” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, no. 8, Article ID 083107, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Liu, Y. Wu, Y.-M. Lin et al., “Epitaxial graphene nanoribbon array fabrication using BCP-assisted nanolithography,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 6786–6792, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. G. Son, M. Son, K.-J. Moon et al., “Sub-10 nm graphene nanoribbon array field-effect transistors fabricated by block copolymer lithography,” Advanced Materials, vol. 25, no. 34, pp. 4723–4728, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. M. Aghaei, N. Yasrebi, and B. Rashidian, “Characterization of line nanopatterns on positive photoresist produced by scanning near-field optical microscope,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Article ID 936876, 7 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Wagner, V. V. Ivanovskaya, M. Melle-Franco et al., “Stable hydrogenated graphene edge types: normal and reconstructed Klein edges,” Physical Review B—Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 88, no. 9, Article ID 094106, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y.-L. Song, Y. Zhang, J.-M. Zhang, D.-B. Lu, and K.-W. Xu, “Modulation of the electronic and magnetic properties of the silicene nanoribbons by a single C chain,” European Physical Journal B, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 197–202, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. E. Dávila, A. Marele, P. De Padova et al., “Comparative structural and electronic studies of hydrogen interaction with isolated versus ordered silicon nanoribbons grown on Ag(110),” Nanotechnology, vol. 23, no. 38, Article ID 385703, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. Liang, V. Wang, H. Mizuseki, and Y. Kawazoe, “Band gap engineering of silicene zigzag nanoribbons with perpendicular electric fields: A Theoretical Study,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 24, no. 45, Article ID 455302, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Xu, G. Luo, Q. Liu et al., “Giant magnetoresistance in silicene nanoribbons,” Nanoscale, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 3111–3117, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. M. Aghaei and I. Calizo, “Band gap tuning of armchair silicene nanoribbons using periodic hexagonal holes,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, no. 10, Article ID 104304, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. Dong, D. Fang, B. Gong, Y. Zhang, E. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag silicene nanoribbons with Stone-Wales defects,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 117, no. 6, Article ID 064307, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Q. G. Jiang, J. F. Zhang, Z. M. Ao, and Y. P. Wu, “Density functional theory study on the electronic properties and stability of silicene/silicane nanoribbons,” Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol. 3, no. 16, pp. 3954–3959, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. M. Aghaei and I. Calizo, “Bandgap changes in armchair silicene nanoribbons perforated with periodic nanoholes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE SoutheastCon (SECon '15), pp. 1–6, April 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. M. Aghaei, M. M. Monshi, I. Torres, and I. Calizo, “Edge functionalization and doping effects on the stability, electronic and magnetic properties of silicene nanoribbons,” RSC Advances, vol. 6, no. 21, pp. 17046–17058, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. M. Aghaei and I. Calizo, “Density functional theory study on energy band gap of armchair silicene nanoribbons with periodic nanoholes,” MRS Advances, vol. 1, no. 22, pp. 1613–1618, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. M. Brandbyge, J.-L. Mozos, P. Ordejón, J. Taylor, and K. Stokbro, “Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport,” Physical Review B, vol. 65, no. 16, Article ID 165401, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Taylor, H. Guo, and J. Wang, “Ab initio modeling of quantum transport properties of molecular electronic device,” Physical Review B, vol. 63, no. 24, Article ID 245407, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. Atomistix Toolkit version 2015.0, QuantumWise, Copenhagen, Denmark, http://www.quantumwise.com
  59. T. Wassmann, A. P. Seitsonen, A. M. Saitta, M. Lazzeri, and F. Mauri, “Structure, stability, edge states, and aromaticity of graphene ribbons,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 101, no. 9, Article ID 096402, 4 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. R. Stull and H. Prophet, JANAF Thermochemical Tables, No. NSRDS-NBS-37, National Standard Reference Data System, 1971