Journal of Nanomaterials / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Critical Review on Nanofluids: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications

Table 1

Summary of the effects of different nanoparticles types, size of nanoparticles, loading of nanoparticles, synthesis process, and dispersion method on the stability of different types of nanofluids.

Nanoparticles typeBase fluidSynthesis processParticle loading (vol. %)Particle size (nm)Dispersion methodStabilityRef.

SiO2WaterTwo-step10NR3-Glycid oxyl proyl tri-methy oxy silane (mass ratio of silane to silica = 0.115) + solution kept at 50°C for 12 hours12 months[2]

SiO2Deionized waterTwo-stepNRNROscillated in an ultrasonic bath for 12 h Several days[2]

SiO2Deionized waterTwo-step0.45, 1.85, and 412Ultrasonic vibrationNR[3]

SiO2EG, water, EG/water solutions, and TO/water solutionTwo-StepNR10 nm with 600 m2·g−1 specific surface areaUltrasonic disrupter techniqueNR[4]

SiCWaterTwo-step9NRSonicated for 15 minutes and pH of solution = 9.5NR (not reported)[57]

TiO2EG/waterTwo-step0.5–1.550Ultrasonic bath of 2 hoursNR[8]

TiO2WaterTwo-step1, 1.5, and 2.06Mixture sonicated in magnetic stirrer followed by ultrasonic vibration for 2 hoursNR[9]

TiO2  &  C-TiO2EGTwo-step0.04 and 0.08NRSonicated at a frequency of 42 kHzNR[10]

TiO2  &  C-TiO2waterTwo-step0.04 and 0.08NRSonicated at frequency of 42 kHzNR[10]

TiO2Distilled waterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic cleaner used for 30 minNR[11]

TiO2Distilled waterTwo-step0.01NRUltrasonication for 30 minNR[12]

TiO2Distilled waterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic vibration (400 W and 24 kHz) for 3–5 hoursSeveral days[13]

Al2O3Wide rangeNRNR28Mechanical blending, coating particles with polymers, and filtration methodNR[14]

Al2O3WaterTwo-stepNR60.4Ultrasonic disrupter + homogenization by magnetic force agitationNR[15]

Al2O3Water and EG in polyethylene containerTwo-stepNR38.4Mixture shaken thoroughlyNR[16]

Al2O3EGTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic mixing for several minutesDuration of experiment[17]

45 and 150Ultrasonication + pH kept away from the isoelectric point (IEP) = zero zeta potential
Several weeks[18]

Al2O3WaterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic pulses of 100 W and 36 3 kHz for 6 h and
pH = 4.8
Several weeks[19, 20]

Al2O3WaterTwo-step2040.2Mixture diluted by 1% nitric acid + sonication continuously for 4 h at 60 Hz and 130 WOne week[21]

Al2O3WaterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic pulses of 100 W and 36 ± 3 kHz for 6 h. pH = 4.8, and zeta potential = 45 mV.Several weeks[22]

Al2O3WaterOne-step0.5, 1, & 3NRHomogenizer at 8000 rpm for 30 min + an electromagnetic agitator at 600 rpmMore than 2 weeks[23]

ZnOWaterTwo-stepNR150–80Acetyl acetone + sonication for 10 minutesOver 9 months to 1 year[20]

ZnOEGTwo-stepNRNRContinuous stirring & sonicating (40 kHz and 150 W) for 3 hoursNR[24]

ZnOWaterTwo-stepNR210Mixture stirred for 30 min at 25°C + sonication using single piezoactuated bath, a solenoid-actuated bath, and a static bath with an immersed hornNR[22]

ZnOEG/H2OTwo-step0.1, 0.5, and 1NRStabilize mixture by
5 wt.% PVP or 1 wt.% PVA + solution stirred by magnetic stirrer before ultrasonication

ZnOWaterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonication for 3 h + sodium hexametaphosphate (surfactant: NP ratio = 1 : 5) + high shear homogenization for 20 min at 7000 rpm, followed by ultrasonication for 180 min (750 W and 20 kHz)NR[26]

ZnOPEGTwo-stepNRNRSonicationAt least 140 min[27]

ZnOEGTwo-step0.005 and 0.0375<50Intense ultrasonication at 200 W up to 100 h + no surfactantNR[28]

CuOWaterOne-stepNRNRPulsed laser ablation in liquids using a single-pulsed laser beam for 8 hBetter than two-step[29]

CuODeionized waterTwo-stepNRNRContinuous sonication for 6 hNR[29]

CuOWaterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonication for 6 h + surfactant Tiron (CuO : Tiron = 2.5 : 1). Zeta potential = 30 mV ensuredNR[30]

CuODistilled waterTwo-step0.05 vol.%NRSodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) of 10 wt.% of nanoparticles (reason: to prevent immediate settlement as CuO NPs have high density (6310 kg·m−3) compared to water (995 kg·m−3)) + sonication for 60 minBest with SDBS[31]

CuOOleic acidTwo-step1, 1.5, & 2NRUltrasonicated at a frequency of 40 kHzNR[32]

CuOEG + waterTwo-stepNR<40Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with weight ratio of 0.25 : 1 (PVP : CuO) + mixture stirred and agitated thoroughly for 30 minNR[33]

CuOWaterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic bath (100 W) for 4 hours25 days[34]

CuODistilled waterTwo-stepNRNRVibrated for 10 h in an ultrasonic mixer5 hours[35]

Fe3O4Water + EG (50% : 50%)Two-stepNRNRSonicated for two hours with vigorous agitation for 30 minutesMore than 8 hours[36]

Fe3O4WaterTwo-stepNRNROleic acidNR[37]

Fe3O4KeroseneTwo-step1 vol.%NROleic acidNR[38]

α-Fe2O3GlycerolTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonication at 700 W for 30 minNR[39]

Fe3O4WaterTwo-stepNRNRSonication for 1 hour12 hours[40]

Fe3O4WaterTwo-stepNRNRSonication for 2 hours + pH = 3 (use sulfuric acid (H2SO4))NR[41]

Fe2O3WaterTwo-step0.02 vol.40PH = 11.1 + PEG as surfactant + magnetic stirring for 1 hour7 days[42]

Fe2O3MAAS (30 mM KOH and 10 mM LiOH in deionized water)Two-stepNR40–150(Ultrasonic bath, 37 kHz) for 4–6 h + agitation for at least 1 hour with sonicationNR[43]

α-Fe2O3WaterTwo-step0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, & 420–40Sonication + tetramethylammonium hydroxideNR[44]

AINPolypropylene glycolTwo-stepNR169Stirred for 40 min at 3000 rpm30 hours[45]

AlNEGTwo-stepNR165Sonication for 3 hNR[46]

AlNTransformer oil (TO)Two-stepNRNRStirring and ultrasonic vibration without the addition of any surfactantNR[47]

AlNEthanolTwo-stepNR20Castor oil + stirring at high speed + ultrasonic homogenizer for 10 minMore than two weeks[48]

CuTransformer oilNR22NROleic acid + suspension vibrated for 10 hOne week[49]

CuDeionized waterNR9NRLaureate salts + ultrasonic vibration30 hours[49]

CuNRTwo-stepNRNRSodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sorbitan monooleate24 hours[50]

CuWaterTwo-stepNRNR9.0% anionic surfactant in an ultrasonic bath for about 10 hoursNR[51]

CuNRTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic bath for 1.5 hours4 hours[52]

CuDistilled waterTwo-stepNRNRIntense ultrasonication for 10 h at 200 W + magnetic stirrer for another 10 h15 days[53]

CuWaterOne-step0.1–0.330–50NRMore than 2 weeks (for 0.1%)
& 5 days (for 0.3%)

AgDiethylene glycolTwo-stepNRNRContinuous stirring & agitation for 5 min by an ultrasonic agitatorNR[55]

Ag nanorodsNRTwo-stepNRNRCTAB surfactant micellesMaximum one week[56]

AgNRTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic bath for 3 h48 hours[57]

AgDeionized waterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic bath for about 15 minNR[58]

AuDistilled waterTwo-stepNRNRSolution boiled for 10 min at 80°CNR[59]

AuWater (laser ablation)One-stepNRNRStirred magneticallyNR[60]

MWCNTNR (first treated with hydrophilic functional groups)Two-stepNRNRNRSeveral months[61]

MWCNTNR (not treated)Two-stepNRNRWith or without oleylamine5 minutes[61]

CNTsGum Arabic + deionized waterTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonication + magnetic stirring for 5 minutesOver 1 month[62]

CNTsWaterTwo-stepNRNR0.2 wt.% chitosan2 months[63]

CNTsGlycolTwo-stepNRNRUltrasonic vibration (Gum Arabic, Tween 80, and CTAB)More than two months[64]

Deionized waterTwo-stepNRNRHexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) 120 minutes[65]

Alumina CNFsEGTwo-step5.5 vol.%NRSonication for 1 hourNR[66]

& sodium dodecyl sulphate
Deionized waterTwo-stepNRNRStirring + ultrasonication for 1 hour at 25°C NR[67]

TiO2 nanorodsDeionized waterTwo-step0.0510 40Ultrasonic
Dismembrator for 8–10 hours

ZnO nanorodsDeionized waterTwo-step0.01–0.1140Ammonia citrate at a ZnO/ammonium citrate ratio of 1 : 1 (sonication for about 15 min.) NR[69]

CuO nanorods
(stearic acid-modified)
Heat transfer oilTwo-step0.8%40–60 nm in diameter and 100–120 nm in lengthNRNR[70]

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