Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 7372306, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7372306
Review Article

Niosomes as Nanoparticular Drug Carriers: Fundamentals and Recent Applications

Institute for Technical Chemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany

Received 21 April 2016; Accepted 23 May 2016

Academic Editor: Lei Liu

Copyright © 2016 Didem Ag Seleci et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Seleci, D. Ag Seleci, R. Joncyzk, F. Stahl, C. Blume, and T. Scheper, “Smart multifunctional nanoparticles in nanomedicine,” BioNanoMaterials, vol. 17, no. 1-2, pp. 33–41, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. N. B. Mahale, P. D. Thakkar, R. G. Mali, D. R. Walunj, and S. R. Chaudhari, “Niosomes: novel sustained release nonionic stable vesicular systems—an overview,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 183, pp. 46–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Tavano, L. Gentile, C. Oliviero Rossi, and R. Muzzalupo, “Novel gel-niosomes formulations as multicomponent systems for transdermal drug delivery,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 110, pp. 281–288, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. B. Bini, D. Akhilesh, P. Prabhakara, and K. Jv, “Development and characterization of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) for oral delivery of lornoxicam,” International Journal of Drug Development and Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 147–154, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. Q. Li, Z. Li, W. Zeng et al., “Proniosome-derived niosomes for tacrolimus topical ocular delivery: in vitro cornea permeation, ocular irritation, and in vivo anti-allograft rejection,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 62, pp. 115–123, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Z. S. Bayindir, A. Beşikci, and N. Yüksel, “Paclitaxel-loaded niosomes for intravenous administration: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in rats,” Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1403–1412, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Marianecci, F. Rinaldi, M. Mastriota et al., “Anti-inflammatory activity of novel ammonium glycyrrhizinate/niosomes delivery system: human and murine models,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. K. Mehta and N. Jindal, “Tyloxapol niosomes as prospective drug delivery module for antiretroviral drug nevirapine,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 67–75, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Arunothayanun, M.-S. Bernard, D. Q. M. Craig, I. F. Uchegbu, and A. T. Florence, “The effect of processing variables on the physical characteristics of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) formed from a hexadecyl diglycerol ether,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Pardakhty, J. Varshosaz, and A. Rouholamini, “In vitro study of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether niosomes for delivery of insulin,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 328, no. 2, pp. 130–141, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Manconi, D. Valenti, C. Sinico, F. Lai, G. Loy, and A. M. Fadda, “Niosomes as carriers for tretinoin: II. Influence of vesicular incorporation on tretinoin photostability,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 260, no. 2, pp. 261–272, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Z. S. Bayindir and N. Yuksel, “Characterization of niosomes prepared with various nonionic surfactants for paclitaxel oral delivery,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 2049–2060, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Paolino, D. Cosco, R. Muzzalupo, E. Trapasso, N. Picci, and M. Fresta, “Innovative bola-surfactant niosomes as topical delivery systems of 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of skin cancer,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 353, no. 1-2, pp. 233–242, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Paolino, R. Muzzalupo, A. Ricciardi, C. Celia, N. Picci, and M. Fresta, “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Bola-surfactant containing niosomes for transdermal delivery,” Biomedical Microdevices, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 421–433, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Yoshioka, B. Sternberg, and A. T. Florence, “Preparation and properties of vesicles (niosomes) of sorbitan monoesters (Span 20, 40, 60 and 80) and a sorbitan triester (Span 85),” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. C. Okore, A. A. Attama, K. C. Ofokansi, C. O. Esimone, and E. B. Onuigbo, “Formulation and evaluation of niosomes,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 323–328, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Akhilesh, K. B. Bini, and J. V. Kamath, “Review on span-60 based non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) as novel drug delivery,” International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 6–12, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  18. C. P. Jain and S. P. Vyas, “Preparation and characterization of niosomes containing rifampicin for lung targeting,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 401–407, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Mandal, C. Banerjee, S. Ghosh, J. Kuchlyan, and N. Sarkar, “Modulation of the photophysical properties of curcumin in nonionic surfactant (Tween-20) forming micelles and niosomes: a comparative study of different microenvironments,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 117, no. 23, pp. 6957–6968, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Di Marzio, C. Marianecci, M. Petrone, F. Rinaldi, and M. Carafa, “Novel pH-sensitive non-ionic surfactant vesicles: comparison between Tween 21 and Tween 20,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 18–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Imran, M. R. Shah, F. Ullah et al., “Glycoside-based niosomal nanocarrier for enhanced in-vivo performance of Cefixime,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 505, no. 1-2, pp. 122–132, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. M. Manconi, C. Sinico, D. Valenti, F. Lai, and A. M. Fadda, “Niosomes as carriers for tretinoin: III. A study into the in vitro cutaneous delivery of vesicle-incorporated tretinoin,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 311, no. 1-2, pp. 11–19, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Bandyopadhyay and M. Johnson, “Fatty alcohols or fatty acids as niosomal hybrid carrier: effect on vesicle size, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro dye release,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 68–71, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Tavano, R. Muzzalupo, L. Mauro, M. Pellegrino, S. Andò, and N. Picci, “Transferrin-conjugated Pluronic niosomes as a new drug delivery system for anticancer therapy,” Langmuir, vol. 29, no. 41, pp. 12638–12646, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Muzzalupo, L. Tavano, R. Cassano, S. Trombino, T. Ferrarelli, and N. Picci, “A new approach for the evaluation of niosomes as effective transdermal drug delivery systems,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 28–35, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Bragagni, N. Mennini, S. Furlanetto, S. Orlandini, C. Ghelardini, and P. Mura, “Development and characterization of functionalized niosomes for brain targeting of dynorphin-B,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. P. Vyas, R. P. Singh, S. Jain et al., “Non-ionic surfactant based vesicles (niosomes) for non-invasive topical genetic immunization against hepatitis B,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 296, no. 1-2, pp. 80–86, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Sankhyan and P. Pawar, “Recent trends in niosome as vesicular drug delivery system,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 20–32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. B. Junyaprasert, V. Teeranachaideekul, and T. Supaperm, “Effect of charged and non-ionic membrane additives on physicochemical properties and stability of niosomes,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 851–859, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Bragagni, N. Mennini, C. Ghelardini, and P. Mura, “Development and characterization of niosomal formulations of doxorubicin aimed at brain targeting,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 184–196, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Dufes, F. Gaillard, I. F. Uchegbu, A. G. Schätzlein, J.-C. Olivier, and J.-M. Muller, “Glucose-targeted niosomes deliver vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the brain,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 285, no. 1-2, pp. 77–85, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Tavano, M. Vivacqua, V. Carito, R. Muzzalupo, M. C. Caroleo, and F. Nicoletta, “Doxorubicin loaded magneto-niosomes for targeted drug delivery,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 102, pp. 803–807, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Hong, S. Zhu, Y. Jiang, G. Tang, and Y. Pei, “Efficient tumor targeting of hydroxycamptothecin loaded PEGylated niosomes modified with transferrin,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 96–102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Dufes, J.-M. Muller, W. Couet, J.-C. Olivier, I. F. Uchegbu, and A. G. Schätzlein, “Anticancer drug delivery with transferrin targeted polymeric chitosan vesicles,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 101–107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Pawar and P. Vavia, “Glucosamine anchored cancer targeted nano-vesicular drug delivery system of doxorubicin,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 68–79, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Yuksel, Z. S. Bayindir, E. Aksakal, and A. T. Ozcelikay, “In situ niosome forming maltodextrin proniosomes of candesartan cilexetil: in vitro and in vivo evaluations,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 82, pp. 453–463, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Shah, “Characterization, optimization and formulation of niosome containing naproxen,” Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. A. Mavaddati, F. Moztarzadeh, and F. Baghbani, “Effect of formulation and processing variables on dexamethasone entrapment and release of niosomes,” Journal of Cluster Science, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 2065–2078, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Sohrabi, A. Haeri, A. Mahboubi, A. Mortazavi, and S. Dadashzadeh, “Chitosan gel-embedded moxifloxacin niosomes: an efficient antimicrobial hybrid system for burn infection,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 85, pp. 625–633, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. V. J. Mokale, H. I. Patil, A. P. Patil, P. R. Shirude, and J. B. Naik, “Formulation and optimisation of famotidine proniosomes: an in vitro and ex vivo study,” Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 97–110, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Jiao, “Polyoxyethylated nonionic surfactants and their applications in topical ocular drug delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 15, pp. 1663–1673, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. I. F. Uchegbu and A. T. Florence, “Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes): physical and pharmaceutical chemistry,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 1–55, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Shahiwala and A. Misra, “Studies in topical application of niosomally entrapped nimesulide,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 220–225, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. V. Sharma, S. Anandhakumar, and M. Sasidharan, “Self-degrading niosomes for encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs: an efficient carrier for cancer multi-drug delivery,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 56, pp. 393–400, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. G. Caracciolo, D. Pozzi, R. Caminiti et al., “Effect of hydration on the structure of solid-supported Niosomal membranes investigated by in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 462, no. 4-6, pp. 307–312, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. Nasseri, “Effect of cholesterol and temperature on the elastic properties of niosomal membranes,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 300, no. 1-2, pp. 95–101, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Marianecci, L. Di Marzio, F. Rinaldi et al., “Niosomes from 80s to present: the state of the art,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 205, pp. 187–206, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. P. Kumar and P. Rajeshwarrao, “Nonionic surfactant vesicular systems for effective drug delivery-an overview,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 208–219, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. S. Biswal, P. N. Murthy, J. Sahu, P. Sahoo, and F. Amir, “Vesicles of non-ionic surfactants (niosomes) and drug delivery potential,” Internatinal Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  50. J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 1985, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
  51. I. F. Uchegbu and S. P. Vyas, “Non-ionic surfactant based vesicles (niosomes) in drug delivery,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 172, no. 1-2, pp. 33–70, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. A. Khalil and A.-H. A. Zarari, “Theoretical estimation of the critical packing parameter of amphiphilic self-assembled aggregates,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 318, pp. 85–89, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Moghassemi and A. Hadjizadeh, “Nano-niosomes as nanoscale drug delivery systems: an illustrated review,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 22–36, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Liu, R. Guo, W. Hua, and J. Qiu, “Structure behaviors of hemoglobin in PEG 6000/Tween 80/Span 80/H2O niosome system,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 293, no. 1–3, pp. 255–261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Agarwal, V. Bakshi, P. Vitta, A. P. Raghuram, S. Pandey, and N. Udupa, “Effect of cholesterol content and surfactant HLB on vesicle properties of niosomes,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 121–123, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Mokhtar, O. A. Sammour, M. A. Hammad, and N. A. Megrab, “Effect of some formulation parameters on flurbiprofen encapsulation and release rates of niosomes prepared from proniosomes,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 361, no. 1-2, pp. 104–111, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Bhaskaran and P. K. Lakshmi, “Comparative evaluation of niosome formulations prepared by different techniques,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sciencia, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. J. Baillie, A. T. Florence, L. R. Hume, G. T. Muirhead, and A. Rogerson, “The preparation and properties of niosomes non-ionic surfactant vesicles,” The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 863–868, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Marwa, S. Omaima, E. L. G. Hanaa, and A.-S. Mohammed, “Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of diclofenac sodium niosomal formulations,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 1757–1765, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  60. A. Rogerson, J. Cummings, N. Willmott, and A. T. Florence, “The distribution of doxorubicin in mice following administration in niosomes,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 337–342, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. Srinivas, Y. A. Kumar, A. Hemanth, and M. Anitha, “Preparation and evaluation of niosomes containing aceclofenac,” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 249–254, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  62. S. Moghassemi, E. Parnian, A. Hakamivala et al., “Uptake and transport of insulin across intestinal membrane model using trimethyl chitosan coated insulin niosomes,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 46, pp. 333–340, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Budhiraja and G. Dhingra, “Development and characterization of a novel antiacne niosomal gel of rosmarinic acid,” Drug Delivery, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 723–730, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. H. Kiwada, H. Niimura, Y. Fujisaki, S. Yamada, and Y. Kato, “Application of synthetic alkyl glycoside vesicles as drug carriers. I. Preparation and physical properties,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 753–759, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. S. Zidan, Z. Rahman, and M. A. Khan, “Product and process understanding of a novel pediatric anti-HIV tenofovir niosomes with a high-pressure homogenizer,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 44, no. 1-2, pp. 93–102, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. Verma, S. K. Singh, N. Syan, P. Mathur, and V. Valecha, “Nanoparticle vesicular systems: a versatile tool for drug delivery,” Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 496–509, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  67. A. Manosroi, R. Chutoprapat, M. Abe, and J. Manosroi, “Characteristics of niosomes prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) fluid,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 352, no. 1-2, pp. 248–255, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Manosroi, W. Ruksiriwanich, M. Abe, H. Sakai, W. Manosroi, and J. Manosroi, “Biological activities of the rice bran extract and physical characteristics of its entrapment in niosomes by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid,” The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 137–144, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. V. R. Yasam, S. L. Jakki, J. Natarajan, and G. Kuppusamy, “A review on novel vesicular drug delivery: proniosomes,” Drug Delivery, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 243–249, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. D. Mayer, M. B. Bally, and P. R. Cullis, “Uptake of adriamycin into large unilamellar vesicles in response to a pH gradient,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Biomembranes, vol. 857, no. 1, pp. 123–126, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. K. Verma and J. C. Bindal, “A vital role of niosomes on controlled and novel drug delivery,” Indian Journal of Novel Drug Delivery, vol. 3, pp. 238–246, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  72. M. R. Mozafari, “A new technique for the preparation of non-toxic liposomes and nanoliposomes: the heating method,” in Nanoliposomes: From Fundamentals to Recent Developments, pp. 91–98, Trafford Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  73. M. R. Mozafari, C. J. Reed, and C. Rostron, “Cytotoxicity evaluation of anionic nanoliposomes and nanolipoplexes prepared by the heating method without employing volatile solvents and detergents,” Die Pharmazie, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 205–209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. H. Talsma, M. J. Van Steenbergen, J. C. H. Borchert, and D. J. A. Crommelin, “A novel technique for the one-step preparation of liposomes and nonionic surfactant vesicles without the use of organic solvents. Liposome formation in a continuous gas stream: the ‘bubble’ method,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. Tavano, R. Aiello, G. Ioele, N. Picci, and R. Muzzalupo, “Niosomes from glucuronic acid-based surfactant as new carriers for cancer therapy: preparation, characterization and biological properties,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 118, pp. 7–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Priprem, K. Janpim, S. Nualkaew, and P. Mahakunakorn, “Topical niosome gel of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. extract for anti-inflammatory activity enhanced skin permeation and stability of compound D,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 631–639, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. W. Hua and T. Liu, “Preparation and properties of highly stable innocuous niosome in Span 80/PEG 400/H2O system,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 302, no. 1, pp. 377–382, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Manosroi, P. Wongtrakul, J. Manosroi et al., “Characterization of vesicles prepared with various non-ionic surfactants mixed with cholesterol,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 30, no. 1-2, pp. 129–138, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. Pozzi, R. Caminiti, C. Marianecci et al., “Effect of cholesterol on the formation and hydration behavior of solid-supported niosomal membranes,” Langmuir, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 2268–2273, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. Pando, G. Gutiérrez, J. Coca, and C. Pazos, “Preparation and characterization of niosomes containing resveratrol,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 227–234, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Tabbakhian, S. Daneshamouz, N. Tavakoli, and M. R. Jaafari, “Influence of liposomes and niosomes on the in vitro permeation and skin retention of finasteride,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 119–130, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  82. S. K. Mehta and N. Jindal, “Formulation of Tyloxapol niosomes for encapsulation, stabilization and dissolution of anti-tubercular drugs,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 101, pp. 434–441, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. Y. Waddad, S. Abbad, F. Yu et al., “Formulation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of Morin hydrate niosomes prepared from various non-ionic surfactants,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 456, no. 2, pp. 446–458, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. Y. Hao, F. Zhao, N. Li, Y. Yang, and K. Li, “Studies on a high encapsulation of colchicine by a niosome system,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 244, no. 1-2, pp. 73–80, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. Dwivedi, A. Mazumder, L. du Plessis, J. L. du Preez, R. K. Haynes, and J. du Plessis, “In vitro anti-cancer effects of artemisone nano-vesicular formulations on melanoma cells,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 2041–2050, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. P. Gude, M. G. Jadhav, S. G. A. Rao, and A. G. Jagtap, “Effects of niosomal cisplatin and combination of the same with theophylline and with activated macrophages in murine B16F10 melanoma model,” Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 183–192, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. Cosco, D. Paolino, R. Muzzalupo et al., “Novel PEG-coated niosomes based on bola-surfactant as drug carriers for 5-fluorouracil,” Biomedical Microdevices, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1115–1125, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. W. Han, S. Wang, R. Liang et al., “Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 2187–2196, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. S. Shaker, M. A. Shaker, and M. S. Hanafy, “Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and in-vivo evaluation of Tamoxifen citrate loaded niosomes,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 493, no. 1-2, pp. 285–294, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. I. F. Uchegbu, J. A. Double, L. R. Kelland, J. A. Turton, and A. T. Florence, “The activity of doxorubicin niosomes against an ovarian cancer cell line and three in vivo mouse tumour models,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 399–409, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. D. J. Kerr, A. Rogerson, G. J. Morrison, A. T. Florence, and S. B. Kaye, “Antitumour activity and pharmacokinetics of niosome encapsulated adriamycin in monolayer, spheroid and xenograft,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 432–436, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Y. Gaikwad, A. G. Jagtap, A. D. Ingle, S. G. A. Ra, and R. P. Gude, “Antimetastatic efficacy of niosomal pentoxifylline and its combination with activated macrophages in murine B16F10 melanoma model,” Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 605–615, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. Kong, H. Park, C. Feng, L. Hou, X. Cheng, and X. Chen, “Construction of hyaluronic acid noisome as functional transdermal nanocarrier for tumor therapy,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 634–641, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Narang and R. Mahato, Targeted Delivery of Small and Macromolecular Drugs, CRC Press, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. D. Ag, R. Bongartz, L. E. Dogan et al., “Biofunctional quantum dots as fluorescence probe for cell-specific targeting,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 114, pp. 96–103, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. Seleci, D. A. Seleci, M. Ciftci et al., “Nanostructured amphiphilic star-hyperbranched block copolymers for drug delivery,” Langmuir, vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 4542–4551, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. Gadde, “Multi-drug delivery nanocarriers for combination therapy,” MedChemComm, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1916–1929, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. B. Al-Lazikani, U. Banerji, and P. Workman, “Combinatorial drug therapy for cancer in the post-genomic era,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 679–692, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. G. Pasut, F. Greco, A. Mero et al., “Polymer-drug conjugates for combination anticancer therapy: investigating the mechanism of action,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 20, pp. 6499–6502, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Y. D. Livney and Y. G. Assaraf, “Rationally designed nanovehicles to overcome cancer chemoresistance,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 65, no. 13-14, pp. 1716–1730, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. Sarisozen, I. Vural, T. Levchenko, A. A. Hincal, and V. P. Torchilin, “PEG-PE-based micelles co-loaded with paclitaxel and cyclosporine A or loaded with paclitaxel and targeted by anticancer antibody overcome drug resistance in cancer cells,” Drug Delivery, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 169–176, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Thakkar and S. Brijesh, “Opportunities and challenges for niosomes as drug delivery systems,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 13, pp. 1–15, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  103. L. Tavano, R. Muzzalupo, N. Picci, and B. De Cindio, “Co-encapsulation of antioxidants into niosomal carriers: gastrointestinal release studies for nutraceutical applications,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 114, pp. 82–88, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. Marianecci, F. Rinaldi, L. D. Marzio, A. Ciogli, S. Esposito, and M. Carafa, “Polysorbate 20 vesicles as multi-drug carriers: in vitro preliminary evaluations,” Letters in Drug Design and Discovery, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 212–218, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. K. Begum, A. F. Khan, H. K. Hana, J. Sheak, and R. U. Jalil, “Rifampicin niosome: preparations, characterizations and antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from acne,” Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 117–123, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. V. Akbari, D. Abedi, A. Pardakhty, and H. Sadeghi-Aliabadi, “Release studies on ciprofloxacin loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles,” Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 69–75, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. G. Abdelbary and N. El-Gendy, “Niosome-encapsulated gentamicin for ophthalmic controlled delivery,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 740–747, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. K. Ruckmani and V. Sankar, “Formulation and optimization of zidovudine niosomes,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1119–1127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. K. Ruckmani, V. Sankar, and M. Sivakumar, “Tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics and stability studies of zidovudine delivered by niosomes and proniosomes,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. H. Abdelkader, A. W. G. Alani, and R. G. Alany, “Recent advances in non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes): self-assembly, fabrication, characterization, drug delivery applications and limitations,” Drug Delivery, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 87–100, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus