Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 8106814, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8106814
Research Article

Using Commercial Enzymes to Produce Cellulose Nanofibers from Soybean Straw

1Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Bandeirantes Avenue 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2National Nanotechnology Laboratory for Agriculture, Embrapa Instrumentação, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, 13561-206 São Carlos, SP, Brazil

Received 26 May 2016; Revised 14 July 2016; Accepted 10 August 2016

Academic Editor: Zeeshan Khatri

Copyright © 2016 Milena Martelli-Tosi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. L. V. Bose and J. G. Martins Filho, “O papel dos resíduos agroindustriais na alimentação de ruminantes,” Informe Agropecuário, vol. 10, no. 119, pp. 3–7, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. Wan, Y. Zhou, and Y. Li, “Liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatment of soybean straw for improving cellulose digestibility,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 6254–6259, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. Cabrera, M. J. Muñoz, R. Martín, I. Caro, C. Curbelo, and A. B. Díaz, “Comparison of industrially viable pretreatments to enhance soybean straw biodegradability,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 194, pp. 1–6, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. E. de Ramos e Paula, P. F. Trugilho, A. Napoli, and M. L. Bianchi, “Characterization of residues from plant biomass for use in energy generation,” Cerne, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 237–246, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X. Z. Tang, P. Kumar, S. Alavi, and K. P. Sandeep, “Recent advances in biopolymers and biopolymer-based nanocomposites for food packaging materials,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 426–442, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. P. S. Abdul Khalil, A. H. Bhat, and A. F. Ireana Yusra, “Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: a review,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 963–979, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J.-W. Rhim, H.-M. Park, and C.-S. Ha, “Bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 38, no. 10-11, pp. 1629–1652, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X. Xu, F. Liu, L. Jiang, J. Y. Zhu, D. Haagenson, and D. P. Wiesenborn, “Cellulose nanocrystals vs. cellulose nanofibrils: a comparative study on their microstructures and effects as polymer reinforcing agents,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 2999–3009, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Chen, C. Liu, P. R. Chang, X. Cao, and D. P. Anderson, “Bionanocomposites based on pea starch and cellulose nanowhiskers hydrolyzed from pea hull fibre: effect of hydrolysis time,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 607–615, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. X. Cao, Y. Chen, P. R. Chang, A. D. Muir, and G. Falk, “Starch-based nanocomposites reinforced with flax cellulose nanocrystals,” Express Polymer Letters, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 502–510, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. D. M. Teixeira, D. Pasquini, A. A. S. Curvelo, E. Corradini, M. N. Belgacem, and A. Dufresne, “Cassava bagasse cellulose nanofibrils reinforced thermoplastic cassava starch,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 422–431, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Alemdar and M. Sain, “Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues—wheat straw and soy hulls,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1664–1671, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Kaushik and M. Singh, “Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils from wheat straw using steam explosion coupled with high shear homogenization,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 346, no. 1, pp. 76–85, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. I. Morán, V. A. Alvarez, V. P. Cyras, and A. Vázquez, “Extraction of cellulose and preparation of nanocellulose from sisal fibers,” Cellulose, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 149–159, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Abraham, B. Deepa, L. A. Pothan et al., “Extraction of nanocellulose fibrils from lignocellulosic fibres: a novel approach,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 1468–1475, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Pääkko, M. Ankerfors, H. Kosonen et al., “Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high-pressure homogenization for nanoscale cellulose fibrils and strong gels,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1934–1941, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Satyamurthy, P. Jain, R. H. Balasubramanya, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanowhiskers from cotton fibres by controlled microbial hydrolysis,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 122–129, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. de Campos, A. C. Correa, D. Cannella et al., “Obtaining nanofibers from curauá and sugarcane bagasse fibers using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sonication,” Cellulose, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1491–1500, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Tibolla, F. M. Pelissari, and F. C. Menegalli, “Cellulose nanofibers produced from banana peel by chemical and enzymatic treatment,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 1311–1318, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Beltramino, M. B. Roncero, T. Vidal, A. L. Torres, and C. Valls, “Increasing yield of nanocrystalline cellulose preparation process by a cellulase pretreatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 192, pp. 574–581, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Dinand, H. Chanzy, and M. R. Vignon, “Parenchymal cell cellulose from sugar beet pulp: preparation and properties,” Cellulose, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 183–188, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Leitner, B. Hinterstoisser, M. Wastyn, J. Keckes, and W. Gindl, “Sugar beet cellulose nanofibril-reinforced composites,” Cellulose, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 419–425, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Dufresne, D. Dupeyre, and M. R. Vignon, “Cellulose microfibrils from potato tuber cells: processing and characterization of starch-cellulose microfibril composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 76, no. 14, pp. 2080–2092, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Lu, and Y. Deng, “Extraction of cellulose nanofibrils from dry softwood pulp using high shear homogenization,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 695–702, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Hiasa, S. Iwamoto, T. Endo, and Y. Edashige, “Isolation of cellulose nanofibrils from mandarin (Citrus unshiu) peel waste,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 62, pp. 280–285, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. H. Oh, I. Y. Eom, J. C. Joo et al., “Recent advances in development of biomass pretreatment technologies used in biorefinery for the production of bio-based fuels, chemicals and polymers,” Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1945–1959, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Kafle, C. M. Lee, H. Shin et al., “Effects of delignification on crystalline cellulose in lignocellulose biomass characterized by vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction,” BioEnergy Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1750–1758, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. M. Andrade-Mahecha, F. M. Pelissari, D. R. Tapia-Blácido, and F. C. Menegalli, “Achira as a source of biodegradable materials: isolation and characterization of nanofibers,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 123, pp. 406–415, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. X. Sun, X. F. Sun, H. Zhao, and R. C. Sun, “Isolation and characterization of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 331–339, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. TAPPI, “Method T19 om-54,” TAPPI Standard, TAPPI Test Methods, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  31. TAPPI, “Method T222 om-88,” TAPPI Standard, TAPPI Test Methods, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  32. C. S. Farinas, M. M. Loyo, A. Baraldo Junior, P. W. Tardioli, V. B. Neto, and S. Couri, “Finding stable cellulase and xylanase: evaluation of the synergistic effect of pH and temperature,” New Biotechnology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 810–815, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Florencio, F. M. Cunha, A. C. Badino, and C. S. Farinas, “Validation of a novel sequential cultivation method for the production of enzymatic cocktails from Trichoderma strains,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 1389–1402, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. K. Ghose, “Measurement of cellulase activities,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 257–268, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. M. J. Bailey, P. Biely, and K. Poutanen, “Interlaboratory testing of methods for assay of xylanase activity,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 257–270, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. L. Miller, “Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 426–428, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Segal, J. J. Creely, A. E. Martin, and C. M. Conrad, “An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 786–794, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. P. B. Filson and B. E. Dawson-Andoh, “Sono-chemical preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from lignocellulose derived materials,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 2259–2264, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. J. Chirayil, J. Joy, L. Mathew, M. Mozetic, J. Koetz, and S. Thomas, “Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils from Helicteres isora plant,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 59, pp. 27–34, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W. P. Flauzino Neto, H. A. Silvério, N. O. Dantas, and D. Pasquini, “Extraction and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from agro-industrial residue—Soy hulls,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 480–488, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Cho, S. Lee, and M. W. Frey, “Characterizing zeta potential of functional nanofibers in a microfluidic device,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 372, no. 1, pp. 252–260, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Buschle-Diller, M. K. Inglesby, and Y. Wu, “Physicochemical properties of chemically and enzymatically modified cellulosic surfaces,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 260, no. 1–3, pp. 63–70, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. S. Julie Chandra, N. George, and S. K. Narayanankutty, “Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils from arecanut husk fibre,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 142, pp. 158–166, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Kafle, K. Greeson, C. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “Cellulose polymorphs and physical properties of cotton fabrics processed with commercial textile mills for mercerization and liquid ammonia treatments,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 84, no. 16, pp. 1692–1699, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Yue, J. Han, G. Han, Q. Zhang, A. D. French, and Q. Wu, “Characterization of cellulose I/II hybrid fibers isolated from energycane bagasse during the delignification process: morphology, crystallinity and percentage estimation,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 133, pp. 438–447, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. J. Silva and M. L. O. D'Almeida, “Nanocristais de celulose-cellulose whiskers,” Revista O Papel, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 34–52, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  47. H. Yang, R. Yan, H. Chen, D. H. Lee, and C. Zheng, “Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis,” Fuel, vol. 86, no. 12-13, pp. 1781–1788, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. C. Saha, “Hemicellulose bioconversion,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 279–291, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. P. Coughlan, “The properties of fungal and bacterial cellulases with comment on their production and application,” Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 39–110, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. V. Arantes and J. Saddler, “Access to cellulose limits the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis: the role of amorphogenesis,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, vol. 3, article 4, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar