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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2017, Article ID 4362046, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4362046
Research Article

Andiroba Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet) Nanoemulsions: Development and Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Hematotoxicity

1Núcleo de Ensino e Pesquisa em Ciências Ambientais (NEPCA) do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás, Campus Valparaiso de Goiás, Goiás, GO, Brazil
2Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil
3Laboratório de Nanobiotecnologia, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil
4Faculdade de Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil
5Laboratório de Citogenética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil
6Laboratório de Investigação Sistemática em Biotecnologia e Biodiversidade Molecular (LabISisBio), Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem-Paixão; rb.moc.oohay@memohlimanasus

Received 10 January 2017; Accepted 20 March 2017; Published 27 April 2017

Academic Editor: Sohel Rana

Copyright © 2017 Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem-Paixão et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Andiroba oil (AO) is obtained from an Amazonian plant and is used in traditional medicine. We carried out a comparative study to test the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and hematotoxicity of the oil and its nanoemulsion (AN) in vitro (fibroblasts, lineage NIH/3T3) and in vivo (Swiss mice). The AN was characterized by DLS/Zeta, and its stability was investigated for 120 days. The biological activity of AN was assessed in vitro by MTT test and cell morphology analyses and in vivo by micronucleus, comet, and hematotoxicity tests. The AN presented a hydrodynamic diameter (Hd) of and PDI of and good stability at room temperature. The MTT test evidenced the cytotoxicity of AO and of AN only at their highest concentrations, but AN showed lower cytotoxicity than AO. A lower cytotoxicity of AN, when compared to AO, is in fact an interesting data suggesting that during therapeutic application there will be a lower impact in the cell viability of healthy cells. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and hematotoxicity were not observed in vivo. These tests on the biological and toxicological effects of andiroba oil and nanostructured oil are still initial ones but will give a direction to future application in cosmetics and/or the development of new phytotherapics.