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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2017, Article ID 8510342, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8510342
Review Article

Synthesis Approaches of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: The Dilemma of Ecotoxicity

1Sulaiman Bin Abdullah Aba Al-Khail Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences (SA-CIRBS), International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Institute of Integrative Biosciences, CECOS University, Peshawar, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Akhtar Nadhman; moc.liamg@namzansmahs and Imran Khan; kp.ude.uii@nahk.i

Received 19 January 2017; Accepted 14 March 2017; Published 18 April 2017

Academic Editor: Mohamed Bououdina

Copyright © 2017 Ayesha Naveed Ul Haq et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Human’s quest for innovation, finding solutions of problems, and upgrading the industrial yield with energy efficient and cost-effective materials has opened the avenues of nanotechnology. Among a variety of nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) have advantages because of the extraordinary physical and chemical properties. It is one of the cheap materials in cosmetic industry, nanofertilizers, and electrical devices and also a suitable agent for bioimaging and targeted drug and gene delivery and an excellent sensor for detecting ecological pollutants and environmental remediation. Despite inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, synthetic routes are making use of large amount of chemical and stringent reactions conditions that are contributing as environmental contaminants in the form of high energy consumption, heat generation, water consumption, and chemical waste. Further, it is also adding to the innate toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) that is either entirely ignored or poorly investigated. The current review illustrates a comparison between pollutants and hazards spawned from chemical, physical, and biological methods used for the synthesis of ZnO. Further, the emphasis is on devising eco-friendly techniques for the synthesis of ZnO especially biological methods which are comparatively less hazardous and need to be optimized by controlling the reaction conditions in order to get desired yield and characteristics.