Synthesis protocol of (a) bare MSNPs, (b) carboxylated MSNPs, and (c) amino-functionalized MSNPs. In step 1, CTAB is dissolved in water to self-assemble into cylindrical micelles. In step 2, TEOS and TEA are added to form the NP. For NPs with silanol functionalization, the particles are reacted for 24 hours in step 3, after which the complete NPs are formed. For functionalized particles, step 3 includes the reaction of 17 hours, after which (step 4) the functionalization molecules are added. Finally, in step 5, the toxic CTAB is washed out of the pores, eventually resulting in (5a) bare MSNPs with silanol groups, (5b) carboxylated MSNPs, and (5c) amino-functionalized MSNPs.