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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 8417016, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8417016
Research Article

Fabrication, Characterization, and Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Conjugated with Tamoxifen and Its Anticancer Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cells

1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science (LIMS), La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
6Mashhad Branch, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran
7Department of Material Science and Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch, Bandar Abbas, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Khamirul Amin Matori; ym.ude.mpu@lurimahk

Received 23 September 2017; Revised 10 December 2017; Accepted 17 December 2017; Published 6 February 2018

Academic Editor: Zafar Iqbal

Copyright © 2018 Arshin Oskoueian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this experiment, we aimed to fabricate SWCNT conjugated with tamoxifen and evaluated its anticancer potential against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The results showed that SWCNT was synthetized successfully using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The results of Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM analyses confirmed the synthesis of highly pure SWCNT. The functionalization of SWCNT was performed by oxidizing of SWCNT, attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to oxidized SWCNT, and attachment of azelaic acid to the polyethylene glycol group. As a result, the SWCNT with free functional carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups (SWCNT-PEG) was developed. The SWCNT-PEG was then conjugated with tamoxifen (SWCNT-PEG-TAM). The FT-IR together with NMR results confirmed the conjugation of tamoxifen to functionalized SWCNT (SWCNT-PEG-TAM). The cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) of SWCNT-PEG, tamoxifen, and SWCNT-PEG-TAM were >100, , and μg/ml, respectively. Linking tamoxifen to functionalized SWCNT enhanced the cytotoxic action of tamoxifen against breast cancer cells up to 2.3 times. The results of the morphological examination and caspase-3 activity confirmed the higher cytotoxic action of SWCNT-PEG-TAM as compared to free tamoxifen. The results obtained in this study indicated that this delivery system enhanced the therapeutic effects and anticancer potential of tamoxifen against human breast cancer cells.