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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2019, Article ID 5432040, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5432040
Research Article

Enhanced Biocompatibility and Antibacterial Activity of Selective Laser Melting Titanium with Zinc-Doped Micro-Nano Topography

1Department of Oral Implantology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
2Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou, China
3Guangzhou Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China
4Guangzhou Janus Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Feilong Deng; nc.ude.usys.liam@lfgned

Received 28 January 2019; Accepted 2 April 2019; Published 21 May 2019

Academic Editor: Bo Tan

Copyright © 2019 Fan Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Selective laser melting (SLM) titanium is a suitable material for use in customized implants. However, long-term implant survival requires both successful osseointegration and promising antibacterial characteristics. Native SLM titanium thus requires proper modifications to improve its bioactivity and antibacterial efficacy. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was conducted on sandblasted SLM substrate to form a microporous TiO2 coating. Subsequently, hydrothermal treatment was applied to fabricate micro-nano zinc-incorporated coatings with different Zn content (1 mM-Zn and 100 μM-Zn). Surface characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, a three-dimensional profilometer, and a contact angle measuring device. The osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1, Subclone 14, was used in cell viability assays to evaluate adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. An antibacterial assay was conducted using Streptococcus sanguinis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Zn-incorporated samples exhibited higher adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation than did SLM and MAO samples. 100 μM Zn samples exhibited the highest proliferation, and 1 mM-Zn samples manifested the highest ALP activity. In addition, Zn-incorporated samples exerted inhibitory effects on both Streptococcus sanguinis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Combining micro-arc oxidation and hydrothermal treatment, we successfully fabricated a novel Zn-incorporated coating on a microporous SLM surface which possesses both outstanding bioactivity and antibacterial efficacy.