Journal of Nanomaterials The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Towards a Rational Design of Zeolite-Polymer Composite Nanofibers for Efficient Adsorption of Creatinine Thu, 22 Sep 2016 17:25:55 +0000 This report describes the compositional and structural design strategy of a zeolite-polymer composite nanofiber mesh for the efficient removal of uremic toxins towards blood purification application. The nanofiber is fabricated by electrospinning composite solution of biocompatible poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) and zeolite particles which are capable of selectively adsorbing uremic toxins such as creatinine. By controlling electrospinning conditions carefully, the incorporated zeolites in EVOH were found to correspond closely to the feed ratios. Elemental mapping images of Si show that zeolites were uniformly blended within the fibers. The fabricated composite fibers successfully adsorbed creatinine from solution and the adsorption capacity reached a maximum at 12 h. The crystallinity of the nanofiber was also controlled by varying the composition of ethylene content in EVOH. Less crystallinity resulted in higher creatinine adsorption capacity due to the barrier property of EVOH. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the composite fibers showed less toxicity than free zeolite particles which killed more than 95% of cells. The proposed composite fibers, therefore, have the potential to be utilized as a new approach to removing creatinine selectively from the bloodstream. Ryo Takai, Rio Kurimoto, Yasuhiro Nakagawa, Yohei Kotsuchibashi, Koki Namekawa, and Mitsuhiro Ebara Copyright © 2016 Ryo Takai et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Green Energy Nanomaterials for Optoelectronic Devices: Synthesis, Processing, Characterization, and Applications Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:16:01 +0000 Wei-Chun Chen, Shou-Yi Kuo, Ying-Lung Daniel Ho, Kaushik Balakrishnan, and Wei-Heng Shih Copyright © 2016 Wei-Chun Chen et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Au, Ag, Curcumin Au/Ag, and Au-Ag Nanoparticles and Their Nonlinear Refractive Index Properties Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:23:20 +0000 Nanoparticles of gold and silver were prepared by a reduction method and by employing green chemistry principles such as using curcumin as a reducing and a stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectra and TEM. Mie theory was used to determine the particle sizes. The nonlinear refraction and absorption properties of the particles were measured using the z-scan technique. A large value of third-order nonlinearities was obtained using the nanoparticles produced. F. Abdulwahab, F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, and K. Winser Copyright © 2016 F. Abdulwahab et al. All rights reserved. γ-Rays Irradiation Induced Structural and Morphological Changes in Copper Nanowires Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:23:16 +0000 This contribution reports on the effect of γ-irradiations on the structural and morphological properties of copper nanowires (Cu-NWs) within the γ doses varying from 6 to 25 kGy. At 9 kGy, the Cu-NWs started welding, forming perfect X-, V-, II-, and Y-shaped molecular junctions. Further increasing the γ dose up to 15 kGy caused the Cu-NWs to fuse and form larger diameter NWs. At the highest dose of 25 kGy, the nanowires converted into a continuous Cu thin film. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the structure of the Cu-NWs remained stable even after converting into a thin film. The formation of the Cuprite (Cu2O) phases was observed at higher γ dose. The mechanism of forming welded networks of Cu-NWs and Cu thin films is explained via the short and high energy γ-ray wavelengths which act on Cu-Cu molecular covalent bonds isotropically. H. Shehla, F. T. Thema, A. Ishaq, Naveed Zafar Ali, I. Javed, D. Wan, and M. Maaza Copyright © 2016 H. Shehla et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Titanium Dioxide on Diamond-Like Carbon Biocompatibility for Dental Applications Tue, 20 Sep 2016 09:22:41 +0000 The physical and chemical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films make them suitable for implantable medical and odontological interests. Despite their good interactions with biological environment, incorporated nanoparticles can significantly enhance DLC properties. This manuscript studies the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) incorporated-DLC films in dental applications. In this scene, both osteoblasts attachment and spreading on the coatings and their corrosion characteristics in artificial saliva were investigated. The films were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman scattering spectroscopy characterized the film structure. As the concentration of TiO2 increased, the films increased the osteoblast viability (MTT assay), becoming more thermodynamically favorable to cell spreading ( values became more negative). The increasing number of osteoblast nuclei indicates a higher adhesion between the cells and the films. The potentiodynamic polarization test in artificial saliva shows an increase in corrosion protection when TiO2 are present. These results show the potential use of TiO2-DLC films in implantable surfaces. C. C. Wachesk, V. J. Trava-Airoldi, N. S. Da-Silva, A. O. Lobo, and F. R. Marciano Copyright © 2016 C. C. Wachesk et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Mechanism of Enhanced Anticancer Effect of Nanoparticle Formulated LY2835219 via p16-CDK4/6-pRb Pathway in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line Tue, 20 Sep 2016 09:20:17 +0000 LY2835219 is a dual inhibitor to CDK4 and CDK6. This study was to prepare LY2835219-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNP/LY) and LY2835219-loaded hyaluronic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (HACNP/LY) and revealed their anticancer effect and influence on p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway against colon cell line. The nanoparticle sizes of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were approximately  nm and  nm, respectively. The zeta potentials of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were  mV and  mV, respectively. And the preparation process showed considerable drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency. LY2835219, CNP/LY, and HACNP/LY inhibited HT29 cell proliferation with 0.68, 0.54, and 0.30 μM of IC50, respectively. G1 phase was arrested by LY2835219 and its formulations. Furthermore, inhibition of CDK4/6 by LY2835219 formulations induced CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, and pRb decrease and p16 increase at both protein and mRNA levels. Overall, nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could enhance the cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest, and HACNP/LY strengthened the trend furtherly compared to CNP/LY. It is the first time to demonstrate the anticancer effect and mechanism against HT29 by LY2835219 and its nanoparticles. The drug and its nanoparticle formulations delay the cell growth and arrest cell cycle through p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, while the nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could strengthen the process. Xu Tang, Bin Zeng, Jian-Kun Gao, and Han-Qiang Liu Copyright © 2016 Xu Tang et al. All rights reserved. A Green Approach for the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Ultrasonic Radiation’s Times in Sodium Alginate Media: Characterization and Antibacterial Evaluation Mon, 19 Sep 2016 13:00:42 +0000 The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was achieved by a simple green chemistry procedure using sodium alginate (Na-Alg) under ultrasonic radiation as a stabilizer and physical reducing agent. The effect of radiation time on the synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out at room temperature until 720 min. The successful formation of Ag-NPs has been confirmed by UV-Vis, XRD, TEM, FESEM-EDX, zeta potential, and FT-IR analyses. The surface plasmon resonance band appeared at the range of 452–465 nm that is an evidence of formation of Ag-NPs. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline structure in nature, with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. The TEM study showed the Ag-NPs have average diameters of around 20.16–22.38 nm with spherical shape. The FESEM-EDX analysis confirmed the spherical shape of Ag-NPs on the surface of Alg and the element of Ag with the high purity. The zeta potential showed high stability of Alg/Ag-NPs especially after 720 min irradiation with value of −67.56 mV. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed that the Ag-NPs have been capped by the Alg with van der Waals interaction. The Alg/Ag-NPs showed the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These suggest that Ag-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and can be applied in medical field. Miftah Faried, Kamyar Shameli, Mikio Miyake, Abdollah Hajalilou, Ali Zamanian, Zuriati Zakaria, Ebrahim Abouzari-lotf, Hirofumi Hara, Nurul Bahiyah Bt Ahmad Khairudin, and Mariam Firdhaus Binti Mad Nordin Copyright © 2016 Miftah Faried et al. All rights reserved. Competitive Adsorption of Cadmium (II) from Aqueous Solutions onto Nanoparticles of Water Treatment Residual Sun, 18 Sep 2016 09:34:46 +0000 There is increasing interest in using water treatment residuals (WTRs) for heavy metals removal from wastewater due to their low cost, availability, and high efficiency in removing various pollutants. In this study, novel water treatment residuals nanoparticles (nWTRs) were prepared using high energy ball milling and used for efficient removal of Cd(II) in single- and multi-ion systems. The WTR nanoparticles demonstrated high removal efficiency for Cd from aqueous solution as the adsorption capacities of nWTR were 17 and 10 times higher than those of bulk WTR in single- and multielement systems, respectively. Noticeably, Cd(II) adsorption was clearly suppressed in the multi-ion system as Cu and Pb form the most stable monohydroxo complexes. Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) analyses suggested the participation of OH−, O-Al-O, FeOH, and FeOOH entities in the adsorption process. The stability of Cd-nWTR surface complexes is evident as less than 0. 2% of adsorbed Cd(ll) was released at the highest Cd(II) concentration load after 4 consecutive desorption cycles. Moreover, the real efficiency of nWTR for Cd(II) removal from wastewater samples studied was calculated to be 98.35%. These results highlight the potential of nWTR for heavy metals removal from wastewater. Elsayed Elkhatib, Ahmed Mahdy, Fatma Sherif, and Walaa Elshemy Copyright © 2016 Elsayed Elkhatib et al. All rights reserved. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peels Thu, 15 Sep 2016 16:10:43 +0000 The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana). An absorption peak of the gold nanoparticles is observed at the range of 540–550 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy. All the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.48°, 44.85°, 66.05°, and 78.00° that index to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes confirm the successful synthesis of Au-NPs. Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of 32.96 ± 5.25 nm are measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications. Kar Xin Lee, Kamyar Shameli, Mikio Miyake, Noriyuki Kuwano, Nurul Bahiyah Bt Ahmad Khairudin, Shaza Eva Bt Mohamad, and Yen Pin Yew Copyright © 2016 Kar Xin Lee et al. All rights reserved. Studies on the Genotoxicity Behavior of Silver Nanoparticles in the Presence of Heavy Metal Cadmium Chloride in Mice Thu, 15 Sep 2016 13:33:45 +0000 Incredible rapid growth in the nanoparticles applications and development increases the daily human exposure to them but humans are exposed to many other pollutants in addition to nanoparticles that forced us to evaluate the effect of heavy metal cadmium chloride (CdCl2) coinjection on silver nanoparticles induced genotoxic risk in this study. Mice were injected into the abdominal cavity with single dose of Ag nanoparticles (20, 41, and 82 mg/kg) or CdCl2 (1.5 mg/kg) either separately or together simultaneously and sacrificed 24 hours later. CdCl2 cotreatment enhanced the induced dose-dependent sperm abnormality by Ag nanoparticles different doses as shown by the statistical significant decreases in both sperm concentration and motility and increases in the frequency of abnormal sperms and also potentiated the Ag nanoparticles induced chromosomal and DNA damage indicated by the statistical significant elevations in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) and DNA damage levels. Moreover, statistical elevations in malondialdehyde level and reductions in catalase activity were observed after CdCl2 coinjection with Ag nanoparticles compared with Ag nanoparticles treated groups’ values. Ag nanoparticles induced sperm abnormality, clastogenicity, and genotoxicity were potentiated by heavy metal cadmium coinjection that threatens the human life and increases silver nanoparticles genotoxic risks. Hanan Ramadan Hamad Mohamed Copyright © 2016 Hanan Ramadan Hamad Mohamed. All rights reserved. A Novel Two-Step Method for Fabricating Silver Plating Cotton Fabrics Thu, 15 Sep 2016 12:22:04 +0000 A novel two-step method was presented for fabricating silver plating cotton fabrics (SPCFs) with high electrical conductivity and excellent washing fastness. First, polydopamine (PDA) film was coated on the surface of cotton fabrics by in situ polymerization of dopamine, the silver ions in silver nitrate solution were reduced by the catechol groups of polydopamine, and silver nanoparticles were combined with polydopamine by covalent bond on the surface of cotton fabrics. Second, silver ions were reduced by glucose, and silver plating was coated on the surface. Subsequently, the properties of SPCFs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and so forth. With the increasing of silver-ammonia solution concentration or dopamine concentration, the surface resistivity of SPCFs decreases and gradually stabilized. The surface resistivity of the SPCFs can reach , and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (ESE) of the SPCFs can reach  dB. Conductive fabrics have wide application prospect in many of fields, such as antibacterial, intelligent textiles, smart garments, electromagnetic shielding, and flexible sensors. Hao Liu, Lili Zhu, Jie Xue, Lei Hao, Jin Li, Yin He, and Bowen Cheng Copyright © 2016 Hao Liu et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Isobutanol Thu, 15 Sep 2016 11:32:27 +0000 Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation in isobutanol with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. The isobutanol played a role of a surfactant in the synthesis. The nanoparticles were calcined for 100 min to 5 hours in the range of 300 to 600°C. The characterization of the samples by FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed the formation of γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) from Fe3O4 (magnetite) at calcination at 300°C. The morphology and particle size were studied by SEM (scanning electron microscope). Nanoparticles in the range of 11–22 nm prepared at 0.09 M of ferrous chloride exhibited superparamagnetic properties. Nanoparticles synthesized with ferrous chloride and ammonium hydroxide at 75°C and calcined at 530°C for 2 h were α-Fe2O3 (hematite). Diana Kostyukova and Yong Hee Chung Copyright © 2016 Diana Kostyukova and Yong Hee Chung. All rights reserved. New Insight into the Toughening Mechanisms of Seashell: From Arch Shape to Multilayer Structure Thu, 15 Sep 2016 11:10:32 +0000 A seashell is a closed three-dimensional curved surface formed by two symmetrical open shells. Three-point bending is performed on a pure aragonite straight beam (PASB) model and a multilayer structure curved beam (MSCB) model to elucidate the structure-property relationships of seashells. The integrity of the PASB is broken because of the introduction of a soft layer, but this drawback is compensated by the peculiar arch shape and the internal multilayer structure. The effective modulus, stiffness, and fracture energy of MSCB increase with an increase in volume fraction, aspect ratio of aragonite platelet, overlap ratio of hard layers, and ratio of the elastic modulus of the hard layer to the shear modulus of the soft layer. New design disciplines drawn from the MSCB model are peculiar arch shape, internal multilayer structure of larger volume fraction, and aspect ratio of hard layers and nanoscaled soft layers. Quan Yuan, Botao Chen, Bin Chen, and Zeyun Wang Copyright © 2016 Quan Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Facile Synthesis of Electroconductive AZO@TiO2 Whiskers and Their Application in Textiles Thu, 15 Sep 2016 09:50:01 +0000 The electroconductive AZO@TiO2 whiskers have been successfully prepared via coating Al doped ZnO onto TiO2 whisker. The orthogonal tests were employed to optimize the synthetic conditions. The crystallographic structure and the morphology of the AZO@TiO2 whiskers and the polypropylene nonwoven fabrics modified with AZO@TiO2 whiskers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, four-probe meter, and electrometer. The results showed the AZO@TiO2 whiskers exhibited good electroconductive performance. Moreover, the polypropylene nonwoven fabrics modified with AZO@TiO2 whiskers revealed excellent antistatic performance indicating wide application of AZO@TiO2 whiskers in the antistatic textiles. Hui Ma, Qiang Gao, Chunxia Gao, Wei Bao, and Mingqiao Ge Copyright © 2016 Hui Ma et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Response Speed of ZnO Nanowire Photodetector by Coating with Photoresist Thu, 15 Sep 2016 09:47:30 +0000 Spin-coating photoresist film on ZnO nanowire (NW) was introduced into the fabrication procedure to improve photoresponse and recovery speed of a ZnO NW ultraviolet photoelectric detector. A ZnO NW was first assembled on prefabricated electrodes by dielectrophoresis. Then, photoresist was spin-coated on the nanowire. Finally, a metal layer was electrodeposited on the nanowire-electrode contacts. The response properties and I-V characteristics of ZnO NW photodetector were investigated by measuring the electrical current under different conditions. Measurement results demonstrated that the detector has an enhanced photoresponse and recovery speed after coating the nanowire with photoresist. The photoresponse and recovery characteristics of detectors with and without spin-coating were compared to demonstrate the effects of photoresist and the enhancement of response and recovery speed of the photodetector is ascribed to the reduced surface absorbed oxygen molecules and binding effect on the residual oxygen molecules after photoresist spin-coating. The results demonstrated that surface coating may be an effective and simple way to improve the response speed of the photoelectric device. Xing Yang, Zhili Chen, Xinwu Xie, Xinxi Xu, Wei Xiong, Weihua Li, and Shuqing Li Copyright © 2016 Xing Yang et al. All rights reserved. Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals as an Effective Sensitizer for Erbium Ions in Er-Doped SnO2 Systems for Photonic Applications Thu, 15 Sep 2016 07:40:04 +0000 Undoped SnO2 and erbium-doped SnO2 powders were successfully prepared by precipitation method. The effect of the heat treatment and doping contents on the structure of tin oxide and optical properties was also studied. The XRD data and Raman spectra indicate that the SnO2 crystals have formed after being heat-treated at 400°C and the average size of grains is about 8 nm for doping content of 1 mol%. An increase of doping concentration has controlled the growth of nanocrystals. The principle of the visible and infrared emissions of SnO2 and SnO2:Er is also discussed. All photoluminescence study shows that the Er3+ ions can be located in SnO2 nanocrystals and that there is energy transfer from defect levels of SnO2 nanoparticles to neighboring Er3+ ions of crystals. Tran T. T. Van, Nguyen Truc Ly, Le T. T. Giang, and Cao Thi My Dung Copyright © 2016 Tran T. T. Van et al. All rights reserved. Morphology Effect of Silver Nanostructures on the Performance of a P3HT:Graphene:AgNs-Based Active Layer Obtained via Dip Coating Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:16:10 +0000 We report the effect of the use of different silver nanostructures (AgNs) layers deposited via dip coating onto a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and solution processable functionalized graphene (SPFGraphene) composite film intended to be used as active layer in BHJ devices. SPFGraphene was added to P3HT in a ratio of 1.5 wt%. The best results were achieved when a layer of silver nano-pseudospheres (AgNPSs) obtained after 10 immersion cycles was used as coating; in this case the highest light trapping and efficiency percent (%) were achieved. This means an increase of ~11.3% in comparison with the efficiency of the noncoated P3HT:SPFGraphene composite. Results also indicate that graphene was successfully functionalized in order to obtain appropriate dispersion in P3HT and that such conjugated polymer remained unaltered after the addition of SPFGraphene. Finally, it can be concluded that the electrical properties of the as-synthesized films are dependent on the shape and concentration of the AgNs deposited via dip coating. Alí Gómez-Acosta, Zaira Barquera-Bibiano, Edgar J. López-Naranjo, José Luis Reyes-Araiza, Gerardo Torres-Delgado, Oracio Barbosa-García, Eric M. Rivera-Muñoz, Rodrigo Velázquez-Castillo, and Alejandro Manzano-Ramírez Copyright © 2016 Alí Gómez-Acosta et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication and Investigation of Two-Component Film of 2,5-Diphenyloxazole and Octafluoronaphthalene Exhibiting Tunable Blue/Bluish Violet Fluorescence Based on Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition Method Wed, 14 Sep 2016 07:17:15 +0000 Organic luminescent materials play an important role in the fields of light-emitting diodes and fluorescent imaging. Moreover, new synthetic approaches towards π-conjugated molecular systems with high fluorescence quantum efficiency are highly desired. Herein, different 2,5-diphenyloxazole-octafluoronaphthalene (DPO-OFN) films with tunable fluorescence have been prepared by Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition (LVPVD) method. DPO-OFN films showed some changed properties, such as molecular vibration and fluorescence. All films exhibited blue/bluish violet fluorescence and showed blue shift, in comparison with pristine DPO. This work introduced a new method to fabricate two-component molecular materials with tunable blue/bluish violet luminescence properties and provided a new perspective to prepare organic luminescent film materials, layer film materials, cocrystal materials, and cocrystal film materials. Importantly, these materials have potential applications in the fields of next generation of photofunctional materials. Xiaoyu Zhai, Siqi Li, Yufeng Ding, Liangliang Pan, Hejia Yang, Bingyin Jiang, Dongpeng Yan, and Qingyun Meng Copyright © 2016 Xiaoyu Zhai et al. All rights reserved. Cottonseed Oilcake Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity Wed, 07 Sep 2016 10:52:37 +0000 Agroindustrial byproduct mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using cottonseed oilcake (CSOC) extract. The aqueous silver nitrate formed stable silver nanoparticles with CSOC extract as a reducing agent for Ag+ to Ag0. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (4 mM) significantly inhibited the growth of phytopathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and Ralstonia solanacearum. Further, cytotoxicity of AgNPs was evaluated using rat splenocyte cells. The splenocyte viability was decreased according to the increasing concentration of AgNPs and 90% of cell death was observed at 100 μg/mL. Muthusamy Govarthanan, Min Cho, Jung-Hee Park, Jum-Suk Jang, Young-Joo Yi, Seralathan Kamala-Kannan, and Byung-Taek Oh Copyright © 2016 Muthusamy Govarthanan et al. All rights reserved. Performance of GaN-Based LEDs with Nanopatterned Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Tue, 06 Sep 2016 15:50:54 +0000 The indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely applied in light emitting diodes (LEDs) as the transparent current spreading layer. In this work, the performance of GaN-based blue light LEDs with nanopatterned ITO electrode is investigated. Periodic nanopillar ITO arrays are fabricated by inductive coupled plasma etching with the mask of polystyrene nanosphere. The light extraction efficiency (LEE) of LEDs can be improved by nanopatterned ITO ohmic contacts. The light output intensity of the fabricated LEDs with nanopatterned ITO electrode is 17% higher than that of the conventional LEDs at an injection current of 100 mA. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulation matches well with the experimental result. This method may serve as a practical approach to improving the LEE of the LEDs. Zhanxu Chen, Wenjie Liu, Wei Wan, Gengyan Chen, Yongzhu Chen, Baijun Zhang, and Chongjun Jin Copyright © 2016 Zhanxu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Using Commercial Enzymes to Produce Cellulose Nanofibers from Soybean Straw Mon, 05 Sep 2016 16:25:07 +0000 This study used commercial enzymes to isolate cellulose nanofibrils (CN) and produce sugars from chemically pretreated soybean straw (SS) (stem, leaves, and pods) by alkali (NaOH 5 or 17.5% v/v at 90°C for 1 h or at 30°C for 15 h) and bleaching (NaClO2 3.3% or H2O2 4%) pretreatments. Depending on the pretreatment applied to the soybean straw, the yield of CN varied from 6.3 to 7.5 g of CN/100 g of SS regardless of the concentration of the alkaline solution (5 or 17.5%). The CN had diameter of 15 nm, measured over 300 nm in length, and had high electrical stability (zeta potentials ranged from −20.8 to −24.5). Given the XRD patterns, the crystallinity index (CrI) of CN ranged from 45 to 68%, depending on the chemical pretreatment the starting material was submitted to. CN obtained from SS treated with NaOH 17.5% and H2O2 (CrI = 45%) displayed better thermal stability probably because a lignin-cellulose complex emerged. The soluble fraction obtained in the first step of CN production contained a large amount of reducing sugars (11.2 to 30.4 g/100 g of SS). SS seems to be a new promising industrial source to produce CN via enzymatic-mechanical treatment, leading to large amounts of reducing sugars for use in bioenergy production. Milena Martelli-Tosi, Marcela da Silva Torricillas, Maria Alice Martins, Odílio Benedito Garrido de Assis, and Delia Rita Tapia-Blácido Copyright © 2016 Milena Martelli-Tosi et al. All rights reserved. Selective Electrochemical Detection of Epinephrine Using Gold Nanoporous Film Mon, 05 Sep 2016 11:51:04 +0000 Epinephrine (EP) is one of the important catecholamine neurotransmitters that play an important role in the mammalian central nervous system. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the change of its concentrations. Nanoporous materials have wide applications that include catalysis, energy storages, environmental pollution control, wastewater treatment, and sensing applications. These unique properties could be attributable to their high surface area, a large pore volume, and uniform pore sizes. A gold nanoporous layer modified gold electrode was prepared and applied for the selective determination of epinephrine neurotransmitter at low concentration in the presence of several other substances including ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The constructed electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The resulting electrode showed a selective detection of epinephrine with the interferences of dopamine and uric acid over a wide linear range (from 50 μM to 1 mM). The coverage of gold nanoporous on the surface of gold electrode represents a promising electrochemical sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity. Dina M. Fouad and Waleed A. El-Said Copyright © 2016 Dina M. Fouad and Waleed A. El-Said. All rights reserved. One-Step Electrochemical Polymerization of Polyaniline Flexible Counter Electrode Doped by Graphene Mon, 05 Sep 2016 06:21:41 +0000 To improve the photoelectric property of polyaniline (PANI) counter electrode using for flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), graphene (GN) was doped in PANI films covered on flexible conducting substrate by one-step electrochemical method, and then GN/PANI composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), four probe instrument, and so on. The results show that PANI particles can be electrodeposited on the surface of GN sheets as the potential rising to 2.0 V. This formed unique PANI-GN-PANI lamellar structure owing to the strong interaction of conjugated π electron between GN and PANI results in the superior conductivity and catalytic performance of GN/PANI electrode. The maximum conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell with this counter electrode reaches 4.31%, which is much higher than that of GN-free PANI counter electrode. Qi Qin, Fang He, and Wangxi Zhang Copyright © 2016 Qi Qin et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Performance of the Organic Extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides for Ag Nanoparticle Synthesis Tue, 30 Aug 2016 15:52:13 +0000 There are many ways to obtain metal nanoparticles: biological, physical, and chemical ways and combinations of these approaches. Synthesis assisted with plant extracts has been widely documented. However, one issue that is under discussion refers to the metabolites responsible for reduction and stabilization that confine nanoparticle growth and prevent coalescence between nanoparticles in order to avoid agglomeration/precipitation. In this study, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using organic extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides with different polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol). Each extract was phytochemically characterized to identify the nature of the metabolites responsible for nanoparticle formation. With methanol extract, the compounds responsible for reducing and stabilizing silver nanoparticle were associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins), while, with dichloromethane and hexane extracts, the responsible compounds were mainly terpenoids. Large part of the reducing activity of secondary metabolites in C. ambrosioides is closely related to compounds with antioxidant capacity, such as phenolic compounds (flavone glycoside and isorhamnetin), which are the main constituents of the methanol extracts. Otherwise, terpenoids (trans-diol, -terpineol, monoterpene hydroperoxides, and apiole) are the central metabolites present in dichloromethane and hexane extracts. Luis M. Carrillo-López, Ramón M. Soto-Hernández, Hilda A. Zavaleta-Mancera, and Alfredo R. Vilchis-Néstor Copyright © 2016 Luis M. Carrillo-López et al. All rights reserved. PEDOT:PSS-Containing Nanohydroxyapatite/Chitosan Conductive Bionanocomposite Scaffold: Fabrication and Evaluation Tue, 30 Aug 2016 12:36:26 +0000 Conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was incorporated into nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan (nHA/CS) composite scaffolds through a freezing and lyophilization technique. The bionanocomposite conductive scaffold was then characterized using several techniques. A scanning electron microscope image showed that the nHA and PEDOT:PSS were dispersed homogeneously in the chitosan matrix, which was also confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The conductive properties were measured using a digital multimeter. The weight loss and water-uptake properties of the bionanocomposite scaffolds were studied in vitro. An in vitro cell cytotoxicity test was carried out using mouse fibroblast (L929) cells cultured onto the scaffolds. Using a freezing and lyophilization technique, it was possible to fabricate three-dimensional, highly porous, and interconnected PEDOT:PSS/nHA/CS scaffolds with good handling properties. The porosity was 74% and the scaffold’s conductivity was  μS. The surface roughness was increased with the incorporation of nHA and PEDOT:PSS into the CS scaffold. The compressive mechanical properties increased significantly with the incorporation of nHA but did not change significantly with the incorporation of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS-containing nHA/CS scaffold exhibited significantly higher cell attachment. The PEDOT:PSS/nHA/CS scaffold could be a potential bionanocomposite conductive scaffold for tissue engineering. Alireza Lari, Tao Sun, and Naznin Sultana Copyright © 2016 Alireza Lari et al. All rights reserved. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Drug Adsorption Studies of Some Nano-BioMOFs Tue, 30 Aug 2016 08:34:36 +0000 Three new nano-bioMOFs (NBMOFs) (copper serinate, copper prolinate, and copper threoninate) have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Molecular masses of these nanomaterials have been obtained by mass spectrometric studies. Successful in vitro drug adsorption of rosuvastatin drug has been carried out in these three nanosized materials. The amount of rosuvastatin adsorbed in these materials and its slow release after intervals have been monitored by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TGA and PXRD spectra of all these materials in pure form and after rosuvastatin adsorption have also been recorded to elaborate the phenomenon of in vitro drug adsorption in these materials. Tabinda Sattar, Muhammad Athar, and Muhammad Najamul Haq Copyright © 2016 Tabinda Sattar et al. All rights reserved. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting on TiO2 via Photosensitization Tue, 30 Aug 2016 08:22:01 +0000 The search for an alternative to replace conventional fuel has been going on for years due to the limited storage of fossil fuel and excess CO2 emission from the fuel. Using H2 as fuel has gained wide attention recently, as well as consequently splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Seminal semiconductors such as TiO2 and ZnO have their position of CB and VB in alignment with water reduction and oxidation potential, respectively, but their wide bandgap allows them to absorb only UV light of the solar spectrum. Combining narrow bandgap semiconductors or other visible light active sensitizers with TiO2/ZnO is a facile route to exploit the visible light region of the solar spectrum. In this review, I make an attempt to summarize the various photosensitizers used in combination with TiO2 for water splitting with recent reports as examples. Saji Thomas Kochuveedu Copyright © 2016 Saji Thomas Kochuveedu. All rights reserved. Effect of O2/Ar Gas Flow Ratios on Properties of Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposited ZnO Thin Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrate Sun, 28 Aug 2016 14:08:58 +0000 Cathodic vacuum arc deposition (CVAD) can obtain a good quality thin film with a low growth temperature and a high deposition rate, thus matching the requirement of film deposition on flexible electronics. This paper reported the room-temperature deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by CVAD on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Microstructure, optical, and electrical measurements of the deposited ZnO thin films were investigated with various O2/Ar gas flow ratios from 6 : 1 to 10 : 1. The films showed hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. With increasing the O2/Ar gas flow ratios, the -axis (002) oriented intensity decreased. The crystal sizes were around 16.03 nm to 23.42 nm. The average transmittance values in the visible range of all deposited ZnO films were higher than 83% and the calculated band gaps from the absorption data were found to be around 3.1 to 3.2 eV. The resistivity had a minimum value in the 3.65 × 10−3 Ω·cm under the O2/Ar gas flow ratio of 8 : 1. The luminescence mechanisms of the deposited film were also investigated to understand the defect types of room-temperature grown ZnO films. Chien-Wei Huang, Ru-Yuan Yang, Cheng-Tang Pan, and Min-Hang Weng Copyright © 2016 Chien-Wei Huang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ammonium Chloride Solution on the Growth of Phosphorus Gypsum Whisker and Its Modification Sun, 28 Aug 2016 09:00:56 +0000 Phosphogypsum is the by-product of phosphate of fertilizer or phosphate which causes serious environmental pollution. In this work, a series of phosphogypsum whiskers were prepared using phosphogypsum as raw materials and NH4Cl as additive through the atmospheric water solution method. The results showed that the ammonium chloride solution has a great influence on phosphogypsum whiskers growth and the solubility. The best whisker aspect ratio of phosphogypsum was preferred in 1 mol/L NH4Cl solution, in which the solubility achieved 6.434 mg/mL and the aspect ratio reached 69.29. Besides, NH4Cl was found to have a modified effect on gypsum whiskers’ growth and it can be used to get mesh or dendritic whiskers. Shouwei Jian, Mengqi Sun, Guihai He, Zhenzhen Zhi, and Baoguo Ma Copyright © 2016 Shouwei Jian et al. All rights reserved. UV Treatment of the Stabilizing Shell for Improving the Photostability of Silver Nanoparticles Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:29:08 +0000 Silver nanoparticles or nanoclusters are quite sensitive to light exposure. In particular, irradiation in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) region brings about a drastic modification of their optical properties due to growth and reshaping of the nanoparticles. In order to obtain luminescent colloids, small silver colloidal nanoparticles were prepared in chloroform using vinylpyrrolidone oligomers as capping agent and their luminescence properties were used to control their stability upon prolonged exposure to visible light. The polymeric shell around the metal clusters was hardened through photo-cross-linking by UV light. This process did not alter the morphology and the optical properties of the nanoparticles but greatly improved the particle photostability as confirmed also by confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements. The data clearly show that UV curing of the stabilizing layer could be a simple postsynthetic procedure to obtain materials with stable properties. Silvia Rinaldi, Luigi Tarpani, and Loredana Latterini Copyright © 2016 Silvia Rinaldi et al. All rights reserved.