Journal of Nanomaterials The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Double Walled Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Nanocomposites for Photocatalytic Dye Degradation Tue, 25 Oct 2016 11:35:23 +0000 Double walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT)/N,Pd codoped TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a modified sol-gel method and characterised using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, TGA, DRUV-Vis, XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses. TEM images showed unique pearl-bead-necklace structured morphologies at higher DWCNT ratios. The nanocomposite materials showed characteristic anatase TiO2 Raman bands in addition to the carbon nanotube D and G bands. Red shifts in the UV-Vis absorption edge were observed at low DWCNT percentages. The photocatalytic activity of DWCNT/N,Pd TiO2 nanocomposite was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of eosin yellow under simulated solar light irradiation and the 2% DWCNT/N,Pd TiO2 nanocomposite showed the highest photoactivity while the 20% DWCNT/N,Pd TiO2 hybrid was the least efficient. The photocatalytic enhancement was attributed to the synergistic effects of the supporting and electron channeling role of the DWCNTs as well as the electron trapping effects of the platinum group metal. These phenomena favour the separation of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, reducing their recombination rate, which consequently lead to significantly enhanced photoactivity. Alex T. Kuvarega and Bhekie B. Mamba Copyright © 2016 Alex T. Kuvarega and Bhekie B. Mamba. All rights reserved. Structural Stability of Functionalized Silicene Nanoribbons with Normal, Reconstructed, and Hybrid Edges Tue, 25 Oct 2016 11:14:00 +0000 Silicene, a novel graphene-like material, has attracted a significant attention because of its potential applications for nanoelectronics. In this paper, we have theoretically investigated the structural stability of edge-hydrogenated and edge-fluorinated silicene nanoribbons (SiNRs) via first-principles calculations. Various edge forms of SiNRs including armchair edge, zigzag edge, Klein edge, reconstructed Klein edge, reconstructed pentagon-heptagon edge, and hybrid edges have been considered. It has been found that fully fluorinated Klein edge SiNRs, in which each edge Si atom is terminated by three fluorine atoms, are the most stable structure. We also discovered that a hybrid edge structure of trihydrogenated Klein edge and dihydrogenated zigzag edge can increase the nanoribbon’s stability up to that of dihydrogenated armchair edge SiNR, which is known as the most stable edge-hydrogenated structure. With the attractive properties of silicene for practical applications, the obtained results will advance experimental investigations toward the development of silicene based devices. Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Ingrid Torres, and Irene Calizo Copyright © 2016 Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Growth Temperature and Time on Morphology and Gas Sensitivity of Cu2O/Cu Microstructures Tue, 25 Oct 2016 06:40:08 +0000 A facile hydrothermal synthesis with CuSO4 as the copper source was used to prepare micro/nano-Cu2O. The obtained samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing the reaction temperature and time, the final products were successively Cu2O octahedron microcrystals, Cu2O/Cu composite particles, and a wide range of Cu spherical particles. The gas sensitivity of products towards ethanol and acetone gases was studied. The results showed that sensors prepared with Cu2O/Cu composites synthesized at 65°C for 15 min exhibited optimal gas sensitivity. The gas sensing mechanism and the effect of Cu in the enhanced gas response were also elaborated. The excellent gas sensitivity indicates that Cu2O/Cu composites have potential application as gas sensors. Ling Wu, Lun Zhang, Zhipeng Xun, Guili Yu, and Liwei Shi Copyright © 2016 Ling Wu et al. All rights reserved. Effect on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Oxidative Stress of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exposure to Marine Alga Dunaliella tertiolecta Mon, 24 Oct 2016 14:31:39 +0000 Single walled carbon nanotubes were carboxylated by microwave assisted acid oxidation (f-SWCNTs) and examined for their ecotoxicity on marine alga chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta. Toxicity was evaluated based on growth, photosynthetic activities, oxidative stress, and intracellular glutathione in the concentration range of 0.1–20 mg/L f-SWCNT. Physical interactions between the f-SWCNT and alga were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Increasing the nanotube concentration increased the toxic effects where growth inhibition was as high as 30%, photosynthetic yield decreased by as much as 18%, and intracellular glutathione reduction reached 95%. The results from f-SWCNTs were somewhat different when compared to our previous study using the same algae and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes, where exposure led to longer lag phase and higher growth rate inhibition. Megha Thakkar, Somenath Mitra, and Liping Wei Copyright © 2016 Megha Thakkar et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Surface Modification and Purification on Bovine Serum Albumin Binding and Biological Responses Mon, 24 Oct 2016 12:59:21 +0000 Carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been used to improve solubility in aqueous systems and for further functionalization with biologically active moieties for biomedical uses. An important consideration is that oxidation debris is generated during the process of carboxylation, which can be removed by base washing. We hypothesized that surface modification as well as purification by debris removal may alter physicochemical properties of MWCNTs and their ability to bind proteins. We utilized pristine MWCNT, carboxylated MWCNTs (F-MWCNTs), and base-washed carboxylated MWCNTs (BW-F-MWCNTs) to examine formation of a bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein corona and impact on biological responses. We found that carboxylation increased the capability of F-MWCNTs to bind BSA, and base washing further increased this binding. Functionalization increased cellular uptake by rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) and mouse macrophages (RAW264.7), while base washing showed results similar to the functionalized analog. Interestingly, BSA binding downregulated mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) in RAEC cells but upregulated the expression of IL-6 and Hmox1 in RAW264.7 cells. Overall, our study demonstrated that surface modification as well as further purification impacted the interaction of MWCNTs with proteins and subsequent cellular responses. Wei Bai, Zheqiong Wu, Somenath Mitra, and Jared M. Brown Copyright © 2016 Wei Bai et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Silicon Nanoparticles and Nanowires by a Nontransferred Arc Plasma System Mon, 24 Oct 2016 12:47:51 +0000 Silicon nanomaterials were synthesized from solid silicon powder in microsize using a nontransferred arc plasma system. Synthesized silicon nanomaterials were sphere or wire in morphology according to the input power of arc plasma, the flow rate of plasma forming gas, and the collecting position of product. The product was spherical nanoparticles at a high input power for complete evaporation, while it was nanowires at a relatively low input power. The mean diameter of synthesized silicon nanoparticles was increased from 20.52 nm to 40.01 nm by increasing the input power from 9 kW to 13 kW. On the other hand, the diameter of silicon nanowires was controllable by changing the flow rate of plasma forming gas. The mean diameter of silicon nanowires was increased from 16.69 nm to 23.03 nm by decreasing the plasma forming gas flow rate from 15 L/min to 12 L/min. Sooseok Choi, Hyunjun Lee, and Dong-Wha Park Copyright © 2016 Sooseok Choi et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Hollow ZnSnO3 Nanospheres with High Ethanol Sensing Properties Mon, 24 Oct 2016 12:37:24 +0000 Hollow ZnSnO3 nanospheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using ZnO nanospheres as the hard template and raw material simultaneously. The combined characterizations of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the successful preparation of hollow ZnSnO3 nanospheres. The gas-sensing results indicated that the sensor made from hollow ZnSnO3 nanospheres exhibited high sensitivity, good selectivity, and stability to ethanol at a low operating temperature of 200°C. The sensitivity was about 32 and the response and recovery time were about 4 s and 30 s for 100 ppm ethanol, respectively. The enhancement in gas-sensing properties was attributed to the hollow nanostructures and high specific surface areas of ZnSnO3. Qiong Wang, Na Yao, Chen Liu, Dongmin An, Yan Li, Yunling Zou, and Xiaoqiang Tong Copyright © 2016 Qiong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of an Albumin-Coated Mesoporous Silicon Nanoparticle Platform for Paclitaxel Delivery in Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549 Mon, 24 Oct 2016 07:42:34 +0000 Albumin-coated paclitaxel-mesoporous silicon nanoparticles (APMSN) were prepared to improve the anticancer effect in lung cancer by means of regulating the dissolution rate of paclitaxel (PTX). PTX was absorbed into the mesoporous structure of mesoporous silicon nanoparticles (MSN), which was defined as PMSN. PTX was proved to exist in an amorphous state in PMSN, which increased the dissolution rate of PTX. Albumin was coated on the surface of MSN to form AMSN; AMSN and PTX were mixed to form APMSN in order to achieve sustained release of PTX. Then, it was found that APMSN had more significant antiproliferate effects and induced more apoptotic proportion in comparison with PTX in A549 cells. Furthermore, the absorption mechanism of APMSN into A549 cells was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) showed that APMSN could cross the cell membrane and was taken into the cytoplasm quickly. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMSN carriers have potential as nanodrug delivery systems in the treatment of lung cancer. Yu Gao, Xiaofang Che, Chunlei Zheng, Kezuo Hou, Xiujuan Qu, Yunpeng Liu, and Zhitu Zhu Copyright © 2016 Yu Gao et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Correlation between Porosity and Electrical-Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper with Various Porosities” Mon, 24 Oct 2016 07:00:07 +0000 Amit Rawal, Ákos Kukovecz, and Vijay Kumar Copyright © 2016 Amit Rawal et al. All rights reserved. Recent Progress on Nanostructures for Drug Delivery Applications Sun, 23 Oct 2016 13:05:52 +0000 With the rapid development of nanotechnology, the convergence of nanostructures and drug delivery has become a research hotspot in recent years. Due to their unique and superior properties, various nanostructures, especially those fabricated from self-assembly, are able to significantly increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs, reduce cytotoxicity toward normal tissues, and improve therapeutic efficacy. Nanostructures have been successfully applied in the delivery of diverse drugs, such as small molecules, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this paper, the driving forces for the self-assembly of nanostructures are introduced. The strategies of drug delivery by nanostructures are briefly discussed. Furthermore, the emphasis is put on a variety of nanostructures fabricated from various building materials, mainly liposomes, polymers, ceramics, metal, peptides, nucleic acids, and even drugs themselves. Haijiao Lu, Jingkang Wang, Ting Wang, Jian Zhong, Ying Bao, and Hongxun Hao Copyright © 2016 Haijiao Lu et al. All rights reserved. Morphological Study and Dielectric Behavior of Nonisothermally Crystallized Poly(ethylene naphthalate) Nanocomposites as a Function of Graphene Content Sun, 23 Oct 2016 08:56:43 +0000 Morphological evolution and dielectric properties of poly(ethylene naphthalate)- (PEN-) graphene nanocomposites nonisothermally crystallized have been investigated. PEN-graphene nanocomposites containing 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 wt% of graphene were prepared by melt blending in a mini twin screw extruder. The results showed that graphene exhibited a superior influence on morphological and conformational structure of PEN during nonisothermal crystallization at low graphene contents. Crystallization temperature () was found to be increased up to 18°C supporting the high nucleating activity of graphene layers. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that graphene modifies the conformation of PEN chains promoting crystallinity and favoring the evolution from to crystalline form with homogeneous lamellar thickness. It may be attributed to the structural similarity between naphthalene rings and graphene structure and to - interactions during nucleation. Dielectric behavior was found to be a function of graphene content where the nanocomposites changed from dielectric to low conducting material when passing from 0.075 to 0.1 wt% of graphene content. This phenomenon permits having a wide range of properties to fit a wide variety of applications required to store electrical energy of low voltage. Adriana B. Espinoza-Martinez, Felipe Avalos-Belmontes, Luis F. Ramos-de Valle, Pedro A. Espinoza-Martinez, Carlos A. Avila-Orta, Florentino Soriano-Corral, José M. Mata-Padilla, and María M. Tellez-Rosas Copyright © 2016 Adriana B. Espinoza-Martinez et al. All rights reserved. Electrospun Chitosan/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofibrous Scaffolds with Potential Antibacterial Wound Dressing Applications Wed, 19 Oct 2016 08:14:55 +0000 Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for the fabrication of nonwoven fibrous materials for biomedical applications. In the present study, chitosan (CS) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully prepared using three different CS/PEO mass ratios and then evaluated for their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Scaffold morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy, which showed decreasing fiber diameters with increasing CS content. Higher CS concentrations also correlated with increased tensile strength and decreased elasticity of the scaffold. Degradation studies demonstrated that PEO was solubilized from the scaffold within the first six hours, followed by CS. This profile was unaffected by changes in the CS/PEO ratio or the pH of the media. Only the 2 : 1 CS/PEO scaffold demonstrated superior inhibition of both growth and attachment of Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, all scaffolds exhibited little impact on the proliferation of murine fibroblast monolayers. These data demonstrate that the 2 : 1 CS/PEO scaffold is a promising candidate for wound dressing applications due to its excellent antibacterial characteristics and biocompatibility. Tony T. Yuan, Phillip M. Jenkins, Ann Marie DiGeorge Foushee, Angela R. Jockheck-Clark, and Jonathan M. Stahl Copyright © 2016 Tony T. Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Si/SiO2 Superlattice Microwire Array Solar Cells Using Microsphere Lithography Tue, 18 Oct 2016 11:04:40 +0000 A fabrication process for silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) superlattice microwire array solar cells was developed. The Si/SiO2 superlattice microwire array was fabricated using a microsphere lithography process with polystyrene particles. The solar cell shows a photovoltaic effect and an open-circuit voltage of 128 mV was obtained. The limiting factors of the solar cell performance were investigated from the careful observations of the solar cell structures. We also investigated the influence of the microwire array structure on light trapping in the solar cells. Shigeru Yamada, Shinsuke Miyajima, and Makoto Konagai Copyright © 2016 Shigeru Yamada et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Surface Treatment and Annealing Temperature on the Recombination Processes of the Quantum Dots Solar Cells Tue, 18 Oct 2016 08:16:04 +0000 We have studied the effect of the surface treatment of the CdS/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by passivation ZnS layers and annealing temperature on the recombination resistance of the quantum dots solar cells (QDSSCs) based on TiO2/CdS/CdSe/ZnS photoanodes. The recombination resistance at TiO2/QDs contact and in TiO2 film decreased when the QDs were added to the passivation ZnS layers. Furthermore, we used the F− ions linker and found the best annealing temperature conditions to reduce the recombination resistance of the QDSSCs. As a result, the current density increased from 7.85 mA/cm2 to 14 mA/cm2. Tung Ha Thanh, Vinh Lam Quang, and Huynh Thanh Dat Copyright © 2016 Tung Ha Thanh et al. All rights reserved. Morphological Transformation and Photophysical Properties of Polyfluorene-Based Luminescent Rod-Coil Block Copolymers Mon, 17 Oct 2016 13:06:08 +0000 The morphologies, synthesis, and photophysical characterizations of poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)]-block-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethylmethacrylate) using amphiphilic rod-coil (PF-b-PDEAEMA) were demonstrated. The aggregation morphologies of PF13-b-PDEAEMA100 were manipulated by tuning the selectivity of mixed THF/methanol solvents with methanol contents ranging from 0 to 90 vol%. The morphological transformation of PF13-b-PDEAEMA100 caused significant changes in its photophysical properties, including absorption, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence quenching. Moreover, the thermal stability of PF13-b-PDEAEMA100 was investigated by varying the annealing temperature. The results of the present study suggest that the solvent selectivity influences the photophysical properties and aggregation morphologies of rod-coil block copolymers in solid and solution states. Yang-Yen Yu and Chun-Yen Huang Copyright © 2016 Yang-Yen Yu and Chun-Yen Huang. All rights reserved. Photoelectrochemical Activity of Graphene Supported Titanium Dioxide Sun, 16 Oct 2016 11:24:48 +0000 Thin TiO2 layers grown over few-layers graphene were prepared in order to evaluate the photoinduced chemical response of this composite. Graphene was grown over copper foils by decomposition of acetylene in a standard chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Graphene was subsequently transferred to a silicon substrate, on which the titanium dioxide was grown to form a TiO2/FLG/SiO2/Si composite. The formation of each layered material was verified by Raman spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical evaluation of the resulting composite, using it as a photoanode, was accomplished with a potentiostat, a solar simulator, and a three-electrode configuration. The electrochemical response indicates that the new composite preserves the average photoactive properties of the base material and at the same time shows a singular transient response where explicit benefits seem to be derived from the FLG/TiO2 combination. Rodrigo A. Segura, Fernanda Olivares, Jeronimo Maze, Patricio Häberle, and Ricardo Henríquez Copyright © 2016 Rodrigo A. Segura et al. All rights reserved. Free-Standing Porous Carbon Nanofiber Networks from Electrospinning Polyimide for Supercapacitors Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:19:15 +0000 Free-standing porous carbon nanofiber networks (CFNs) were synthesized by electrospinning method and carbonization procedure. We study the implementation of porous CFNs as supercapacitor electrodes and electrochemical measurements demonstrated that porous CFNs exhibit a specific capacitance (205 F/g at the scan rate of 5 mV/s) with high flexibility and good rate capability performance (more than 70% of its initial capacitance from 5 mV/s to 200 mV/s). Furthermore, porous CFNs exhibited an excellent cycling stability (just 12% capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles). These results suggest that porous CFNs are very promising candidates as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Bo Wang, Gang Lu, Qiu-Ping Luo, and Tianhu Wang Copyright © 2016 Bo Wang et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Oxidative Removal of Organic Pollutants by Ordered Mesoporous Carbon-Supported Cobalt Phthalocyanine Wed, 12 Oct 2016 13:59:55 +0000 Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials have received attention for use as supports in highly efficient catalytic systems because of their excellent properties. We used epoxy compound 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride (EPTAC) to modify cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine (CoTAPc) and obtained a novel catalyst (OMC-CoTAPc-EPTAC) based on OMC-bonded CoTAPc-EPTAC that could oxidize Acid Red 1 (AR1) dyes by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activation under neutral conditions. OMC enhanced the catalytic performance of OMC-CoTAPc-EPTAC, which resulted in the combined high catalytic activity and high stability. Because of its large surface area and tunable pore texture, OMC has high substrate accessibility, and the modification of the catalyst with EPTAC could promote adsorption of the target substrate into OMC, which achieved the aim of in situ catalytic oxidation with enrichment of the target substrate and improved the catalytic efficiency significantly. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trap experiments confirmed that the OMC-CoTAPc-EPTAC/H2O2 system had a nonradical catalytic mechanism, and the high-valent cobalt-oxo intermediates and generated holes were speculated to act as dominant oxidation species for the catalytic degradation of AR1. These results demonstrated a new strategy for the elimination of low-concentration organic pollutants. Yi Chen, Yan Gu, Nan Li, Wangyang Lu, and Wenxing Chen Copyright © 2016 Yi Chen et al. All rights reserved. Polybenzimidazole and Phosphonic Acid Groups-Functionalized Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Composite Electrolyte for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:38:38 +0000 Here, we report composite membrane consisting of poly[2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-(bibenzimidazole)] (PBI) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane functionalized with phosphonic acid groups (PO(OH)2-POSS) for high temperature proton exchange membrane. ~7 phosphonic acid groups are incorporated into the phenyl rings of POSS via bromination in a high yield (~93%), followed by substitution of the bromine elements by phosphonate ester groups via a Pd(0) catalyzed P–C coupling reaction. Phosphonic acid groups are formed by the hydrolysis of the phosphonate ester groups in hydrobromic acid solution. At a 50 wt% of PA content in the membranes, PBI/PO(OH)2-POSS composite membrane shows larger proton conductivity of 3.2 × 10−3 S cm−1 than 2.8 × 10−3 S cm−1 of PBI membrane at 150°C and anhydrous conditions, owing to the multiple phosphonic acid groups of PO(OH)2-POSS that can function as proton transport medium at high temperature and low humidity conditions. Sung-Kon Kim Copyright © 2016 Sung-Kon Kim. All rights reserved. Aqueous Synthesis of ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-Benzothiazole Nanocrystals with White Emission Tue, 11 Oct 2016 14:01:37 +0000 We prepared water-soluble white light-emitting ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-benzothiazole nanocrystals (NCs), R = 2-hydroxy-5-(2,5-dimethyl-thienyl)-phenyl. The penicillamine (Pen) capped ZnSe/ZnS NCs were firstly prepared with high photoluminescence quantum yields (PL QY) of 40%. Then they bond to 2-R-benzothiazole molecules, resulting in white light-emitting ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-benzothiazole NCs with QY of 75% over a 375 to 650 nm range of emission, which can be applied to white light-emitting diodes. The ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-benzothiazole NCs with two emission bands at around 451 and 557 nm were discussed and the possible mechanism of the interaction of ZnSe/ZnS NCs with 2-R-benzothiazole was also proposed. Ying-Fan Liu, Yan-Hui Zhang, Guo-Qing Wang, Kai-Ming Mao, Shao-Ming Fang, Zhang-Di Li, and Hong-Duo Tang Copyright © 2016 Ying-Fan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Properties of Polystyrene-Graphene Nanofibers via Electrospinning Mon, 10 Oct 2016 13:56:46 +0000 Polystyrene- (PS-) graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) (0.1, 1, and 10 wt.%) nanofibers were successfully produced via electrospining of dimethyformamide- (DMF-) stabilized GNP and PS solutions. Morphological analysis of the composite nanofibers confirmed uniform fiber formation and good GNP dispersion/distribution within the PS matrix. The good physical properties of GNP produced by liquid exfoliation were transferred to the PS nanofibers. GNP modified PS nanofibers showed a 6-fold increase in the thermal conductivity and an increase of 7-8 orders of magnitude in electrical conductivity of the nanofibers at 10 wt.% GNP loading. Yan Li, Harshit Porwal, Zhaohui Huang, Han Zhang, Emiliano Bilotti, and Ton Peijs Copyright © 2016 Yan Li et al. All rights reserved. Thiol-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Effective Trap of Mercury in Rats Mon, 10 Oct 2016 13:35:54 +0000 The chance of exposure to heavy metal for human being rises severely today due to the increasing water contamination and air pollution. Here, we prepared a series of thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica as oral formulation for the prevention and treatment of heavy metal poisoning. The successful incorporation of thiol was verified by the FTIR spectra. SBA15-SH-10 was used for the study as it is of uniform mesopores and fine water dispersibility. In simulated gastrointestinal fluid, the thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica can selectively capture heavy metal, showing a very high affinity for inorganic mercury (II). The blood and urine mercury levels of rats fed with a diet containing Hg (II) and material were significantly lower than those of rats fed with the metal-rich diet only. On the contrary, the mercury content in fecal excretion of the treatment group increased more than twice as much as that of the control group. This result indicated that SBA15-SH-10 could effectively remove mercury (II) in vivo and the mercury loaded on SBA15-SH-10 would be excreted out. Hence, SBA15-SH-10 has potential application in preventing and treating heavy metal poisoning via digestive system. Wei Zhao, Bo Song, Jie Tao, Jiumeng Zhang, Meijuan Huang, Chun Wang, and Maling Gou Copyright © 2016 Wei Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Spirulina-PCL Nanofiber Wound Dressing to Improve Cutaneous Wound Healing by Enhancing Antioxidative Mechanism Mon, 10 Oct 2016 13:07:53 +0000 Skin regeneration is a complex process involving massive proliferation and alignment of cells, where there are obstacles to completion of regeneration, the main one being excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from inflammation or infection. Spirulina, blue-green algae that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, has been used to relieve such ROS stress. In this study, Spirulina extract loaded PCL (Spirulina-PCL) nanofiber was evaluated as a cutaneous wound dressing in view of antioxidative mechanism. In addition to increasing fibroblast viability, the Spirulina extract and its dressing modulated intra- and extracellular ROS by enhancing antioxidant mechanism of fibroblast under oxidative stress. Finally, in vivo assays confirmed that Spirulina-PCL helps regenerate wounds and enhance regeneration. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that Spirulina and nanofiber have the potential for application to cutaneous wound to facilitate skin regeneration. Sang-Myung Jung, Seul Ki Min, Hoo Chul Lee, Yeo Seon Kwon, Moon Hee Jung, and Hwa Sung Shin Copyright © 2016 Sang-Myung Jung et al. All rights reserved. Nanostructural Biomaterials and Applications Mon, 10 Oct 2016 08:12:29 +0000 Mingdong Dong, Lei Liu, and Shuai Zhang Copyright © 2016 Mingdong Dong et al. All rights reserved. Current Trends in Nanoporous Anodized Alumina Platforms for Biosensing Applications Sun, 09 Oct 2016 13:42:31 +0000 Pristine aluminum (Al) has received great deal of attention on fabrication of nanoporous anodized alumina (NAA) with arrays of nanosized uniform pores with controllable pore sizes and lengths by the anodization process. There are many applications of NAA in the field of biosensors due to its numerous key factors such as ease of fabrication, high surface area, chemical stability and detection of biomolecules through bioconjugation of active molecules, its rapidness, and real-time monitoring. Herein, we reviewed the recent trends on the fabrication of NAA for high sensitive biosensor platforms like bare sensors, gold coated sensors, multilayer sensors, and microfluidic device supported sensors for the detection of various biomolecules. In addition, we have discussed the future prospectus about the improvement of NAA based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules. Ganesan Sriram, Pravin Patil, Mahesh P. Bhat, Raveendra M. Hegde, Kanalli V. Ajeya, Iranna Udachyan, M. B. Bhavya, Manasa G. Gatti, U. T. Uthappa, Gururaj M. Neelgund, Ho-Young Jung, Tariq Altalhi, Madhuprasad, and Mahaveer D. Kurkuri Copyright © 2016 Ganesan Sriram et al. All rights reserved. Heat Treatment of Buckypaper for Use in Volatile Organic Compounds Sampling Sun, 09 Oct 2016 13:17:36 +0000 Three types of buckypapers (BPs), two of them fabricated with arc discharge (AD) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) (acetone-cleaned AD BP and methanol-cleaned AD BP) and one with high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) SWNTs (HiPco BP), were heat-treated at different conditions to find the specific conditions for each type that improve the adsorption properties. Based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, three heat treatment conditions were designed for the AD BPs and another three conditions for the HiPco BPs. Also, changes in weight and physical integrity before and after the heat treatment were considered. Heating at 300°C for 90 minutes was selected for acetone-cleaned AD BP, in which the BP kept its physical integrity and yielded a relatively high Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area (970 ± 18 m2/g), while methanol-cleaned AD BP was excluded because of its physical change. For HiPco BP, a condition of 300°C heating for 30 minutes was chosen as a relatively higher surface area (933 ± 54 m2/g) and less weight loss (5%) were observed. Jonghwa Oh, Evan L. Floyd, Mahesh Parit, Virginia A. Davis, and Claudiu T. Lungu Copyright © 2016 Jonghwa Oh et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Removal of Humic Acid in Water by Coupling Adsorption and Photocatalytic Degradation Using TiO2/Coconut Shell Powder Composite Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:50:30 +0000 The feasibility of applying nanoscale TiO2/coconut shell powder (TCNSP) composite to remove HA in aqueous solution was evaluated, and the optimization of the photocatalytic systems using newly developed TCNSP composite was performed. The developed TCNSP composite has high specific surface area (i.e., 454 m2/g) and great porosity (i.e., 66.9%) with pore size of less than 5 μm. High removal efficiencies (≥95%) of HA were observed due to the significant synergistic effects by coupling adsorption and photocatalytic reaction of TCNSP composite. As the initial concentration of HA increased, the degradation rate () decreased due to HA sorption saturation to the surface of TCNSP composite and the photon interception by HA molecules in aqueous solution. Since the increased loading amount of TCNSP composite enhanced the number of active sites, values increased until the optimum loading amount of TCNSP composite. As pH values increased, HA removal efficiency decreased due to increasing electrostatic repulsion between HA and TCNSP composite. Based on the response surface methodology, higher HA removal efficiencies were obtained with acidic condition, longer reaction time, and appropriated loading amount of TCNSP. Further pilot-scale study is in progress using TCNSP composite combined with UVC to remove HA from large amounts of surface water (i.e., 200 m3/d). Jong Kyu Kim, Dae Gyu Jang, Luiza Cintra Campos, Yong Wook Jung, Jong-Ho Kim, and Jin Chul Joo Copyright © 2016 Jong Kyu Kim et al. All rights reserved. Peroxidase-Like Activity of Ferrihydrite and Hematite Nanoparticles for the Degradation of Methylene Blue Mon, 03 Oct 2016 13:58:49 +0000 The peroxidase-like catalytic properties of 2-line ferrihydrite (2LFh) and hematite nanoparticles (NPs) for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were studied. It is highlighted that the hematite NPs were prepared from the transformation of the metastable 2LFh NPs. It was found that the 2LFh NPs exhibited poor crystallinity with an average size of 5 nm, while the hematite NPs exhibited high crystallinity with an average size of ca. 100 nm. It was found that the total degradation of MB occurred for hematite NPs, while only a maximum degradation of 69% was possible for the 2LFh NPs. The Michaelis–Menten parameters indicated that the hematite NPs present higher catalytic activity than the 2LFh NPs at basic pH. It was found that the ordered surface of the hematite NPs has a stronger effect for the degradation of MB than its low surface area. It was concluded that the crystal planes of the hematite NPs affect the catalytic process more significantly than the high surface area of 2LFh NPs. Nicolaza Pariona, M. Herrera-Trejo, J. Oliva, and A. I. Martinez Copyright © 2016 Nicolaza Pariona et al. All rights reserved. A Review of the Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Hybrid ZnO and Carbon Nanomaterials Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:42:41 +0000 Photoluminescent ZnO carbon nanomaterials are an emerging class of nanomaterials with unique optical properties. They each, ZnO and carbon nanomaterials, have an advantage of being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. Their cost-effective production methods along with simple synthesis routes are also of interest. Moreover, ZnO presents photoluminescence emission in the UV and visible region depending on the synthesis routes, shape, size, deep level, and surface defects. When combined with carbon nanomaterials, modification of surface defects in ZnO allows tuning of these photoluminescence properties to produce, for example, white light. Moreover, efficient energy transfer from the ZnO to carbon nanostructures makes them suitable candidates not only in energy harvesting applications but also in biosensors, photodetectors, and low temperature thermal imaging. This work reviews the synthesis and photoluminescence properties of 3 carbon allotropes: carbon quantum or nanodots, graphene, and carbon nanotubes when hybridized with ZnO nanostructures. Various synthesis routes for the hybrid materials with different morphologies of ZnO are presented. Moreover, differences in photoluminescence emission when combining ZnO with each of the three different allotropes are analysed. Protima Rauwel, Martin Salumaa, Andres Aasna, Augustinas Galeckas, and Erwan Rauwel Copyright © 2016 Protima Rauwel et al. All rights reserved. Inorganic Antiflaming Wood Caused by a -Decorated ZnO Nanorod Arrays Coating Prepared by a Facile Hydrothermal Method Thu, 29 Sep 2016 11:38:51 +0000 Wood materials with antiflaming capability were successfully fabricated by depositing a TiO2-decorated ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) film on wood surface using a facile and one-pot hydrothermal method. The prepared specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). To explore the antiflaming properties, the combustion parameters of the wood treated by TiO2-decorated ZNAs were measured using the cone calorimetry technique compared with the untreated wood. For treated wood, the burning duration was prolonged for 55 s; smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) were obviously reduced, especially for the production of CO was almost zero. As a result, thin inorganic film of TiO2-decorated ZNAs had desirable fire resistance, and one-pot hydrothermal method was a feasible method to fabricate nonflammable wood materials. Hong Zhang, Weigang Zhang, Chunde Jin, and Song Li Copyright © 2016 Hong Zhang et al. All rights reserved.