Journal of Nanomaterials https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Critical Review on Nanofluids: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications” Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/7830876/ Mohamoud Jama, Tejvir Singh, Seifelislam Mahmoud Gamaleldin, Muammer Koc, Ayman Samara, Rima J. Isaifan, and Muataz A. Atieh Copyright © 2017 Mohamoud Jama et al. All rights reserved. Reaction and Characterization of Low-Temperature Effect of Transition Nanostructure Metal Codoped SCR Catalyst Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/7901686/ Typical p-type semiconductor MnO codoped with n-type semiconductors such as CeO2 and V2O5 was reported to achieve high efficiency in catalytic NO removal by NH3. In this paper, we present novel Mn-Ce codoped V2O5/TiO2 catalyst which exhibited an excellent NO conversion efficiency of 90% at 140°C. By using this codoped catalyst, the best low-temperature activity was greatly decreased when compared with single Mn- or Ce-doped catalyst. According to the characterization results from BET, XRD, and XPS, the codoped catalyst was composed of both CeO2 and amorphous Mn. The electron circulation formed between doping elements is believed to promote the electron transfer, which may be one of the reasons for excellent low-temperature denitration performance. Ke Yang, Weiwei Xiao, Quan Xu, Jiaojiao Bai, Yan Luo, Hao Guo, Li Cao, Wei Cai, Peng Pu, and Lulu Cai Copyright © 2017 Ke Yang et al. All rights reserved. Viscosity and Morphology Modification of Length Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in PIB Matrices Mon, 18 Sep 2017 07:44:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/5691692/ This work evaluates the effectiveness of nanoscale particulates in producing non-Einstein-like responses in polymer matrices, to reduce their negative effects in low shear rate processing. This is of value to material processing applications which encompass extrusion, flow into cold mold, and generalized processing of nanocomposites. Through control and understanding of the structure processing relationships entailed through nanoscale additive materials, we begin to manage dispersion characteristics for more reliable and defect-free product development. In pursuit of identifying system characteristics that produce non-Einstein-like responses we isolate and characterize homogenous fractions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with singular lengths. This enables the definition of a well-defined nanoscale particulate phase, within the polymer matrices. The effect of nanotube length and weight fraction on the polyisobutylene (PIB) matrices was evaluated with thermal and rheological testing. Our findings show that the viscosity of the produced nanocomposite systems has a length dependence and does not demonstrate the expected monotonous increases in the viscosity with an increase in weight fraction of nanotube additive within the matrix, demonstrating a non-Einstein-like viscosity response. Furthermore, we demonstrate length dependent crystallization in the studied systems, as an intermediate length nanotube initiates crystallization of polyisobutylene (PIB) affecting viscosity and mechanical properties. Hanxiao Huang, Bohoa Li, Clayton E. Simien, and Daneesh O. Simien Copyright © 2017 Hanxiao Huang et al. All rights reserved. Nanoporosity of MCM-41 Materials and Y-Zeolites Created by Deposition of Tournefortia hirsutissima L. Plant Extract Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/2783143/ Hybrid materials based on MCM-41 silica and Y-zeolites with a variable Si/Al ratio and an appropriate countercationic composition were prepared by impregnating inorganic substrates with an organic extract. The organic phase was previously characterized by GC-MS and IRTF, while XRD, SEM, TEM, N2-physisorption, and TPD of NH3 were used to analyze the selected inorganic supports. The effect of size- and shape-selectivity was manifested in MCM-41 and Y-zeolites. Texture results confirm that the extract containing relatively large branched organic molecules is deposited in the internal voids of MCM-41 material and on the outer area of Y-zeolites. In the case of Y-zeolites, the results demonstrate the effect of the SiO2/ molar ratio and countercations on the textural properties of the samples. Miguel Angel Hernández, Gabriela Itzel Hernández, Roberto Portillo, Martha Alicia Salgado, Fernando Rojas, and Vitalii Petranovskii Copyright © 2017 Miguel Angel Hernández et al. All rights reserved. Electrospun Polyaniline-Based Composite Nanofibers: Tuning the Electrical Conductivity by Tailoring the Structure of Thiol-Protected Metal Nanoparticles Sun, 17 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/6142140/ Composite nanofibers made of a polyaniline-based polymer blend and different thiol-capped metal nanoparticles were prepared using ex situ synthesis and electrospinning technique. The effects of the nanoparticle composition and chemical structure on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. This study confirmed that Brust’s procedure is an effective method for the synthesis of sub-10 nm silver, gold, and silver-gold alloy nanoparticles protected with different types of thiols. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that electrospinning is a valuable technique for the production of composite nanofibers with similar morphology and revealed that nanofillers are well-dispersed into the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction tests proved the lack of a significant influence of the nanoparticle chemical structure on the polyaniline chain arrangement. However, the introduction of conductive nanofillers in the polymer matrix influences the charge transport noticeably improving electrical conductivity. The enhancement of electrical properties is mediated by the nanoparticle capping layer structure. The metal nanoparticle core composition is a key parameter, which exerted a significant influence on the conductivity of the nanocomposites. These results prove that the proposed method can be used to tune the electrical properties of nanocomposites. Filippo Pierini, Massimiliano Lanzi, Paweł Nakielski, and Tomasz Aleksander Kowalewski Copyright © 2017 Filippo Pierini et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of PLA-PEG Nanoparticles as Delivery Systems for Improved Stability and Controlled Release of Catechin Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/6907149/ The purpose of this study was to develop an oral delivery system for the controlled release of catechin and evaluate the antioxidant potential and stability of catechin loaded PLA/PEG nanoparticles (CATNP). Nanoparticles were synthesized using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The fabricated nanoparticles were relatively small with a hydrodynamic diameter of 300 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 95%. SEM image analysis showed uniform sized and spherically shaped nanoparticles. In vitro release profiles indicated a slow and sustained release of catechin from the nanoparticle. Stability of the nanoparticle in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids is maintained due to the PEG coating on the nanoparticles, which effectively protected catechin against gastrointestinal enzyme activity. Enhanced inhibition action of free radicals and metal chelation potential was noted when catechin was encapsulated in these polymeric nanoparticles. The reports obtained from this study would provide an opportunity for designing an oral delivery system aimed at inhibiting oxidative stress in the human body. Neha Atulkumar Singh, Abul Kalam Azad Mandal, and Zaved Ahmed Khan Copyright © 2017 Neha Atulkumar Singh et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Surface Charge and Hydrophobicity Modulation on the Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Potential of Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles Tue, 12 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/3528295/ Unmodified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) lack antibacterial potential. We investigated MNPs surface modifications that can impart antibacterial activity. Six MNPs species were prepared and characterized. Their antibacterial and antibiofilm potentials, surface affinity, and cytotoxicity were evaluated. Prepared MNPs were functionalized with citric acid, amine group, amino-propyl trimethoxy silane (APTMS), arginine, or oleic acid (OA) to give hydrophilic and hydrophobic MNPs with surface charge ranging from −30 to +30 mV. Prepared MNPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 6–15 nm. Hydrophobic (OA-MNPs) and positively charged MNPs (APTMS-MNPs) had significant concentration dependent antibacterial effect. OA-MNPs showed higher inhibitory potential against S. aureus and E. coli (80%) than APTMS-MNPs (70%). Both particles exhibited surface affinity to S. aureus and E. coli. Different concentrations of OA-MNPs decreased S. aureus and E. coli biofilm formation by 50–90%, while APTMS-MNPs reduced it by 30–90%, respectively. Up to 90% of preformed biofilms of S. aureus and E. coli were destroyed by OA-MNPs and APTMS-MNPs. In conclusion, surface positivity and hydrophobicity enhance antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of MNPs. Rania Ibrahim Shebl, Faten Farouk, and Hassan Mohamed El-Said Azzazy Copyright © 2017 Rania Ibrahim Shebl et al. All rights reserved. Morphology, Microstructure, and Hydrogen Content of Carbon Nanostructures Obtained by PECVD at Various Temperatures Mon, 11 Sep 2017 09:33:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/1374973/ Carbon nanostructures were obtained by acetylene injection into an argon plasma jet in the presence of hydrogen. The samples were synthesized in similar conditions, except that the substrate deposition temperatures were varied, ranging from 473 to 973 K. A strong dependence of morphology, structure, and graphitization upon was found. We obtained vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) at low temperatures as 473 K, amorphous carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) at temperatures from about 573 to 673 K, and carbon nanowalls (CNWs) at high temperatures from 773 to 973 K. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to substantiate the differences in these material types. It is known that hydrogen concentration modifies strongly the properties of the materials. Different concentrations of hydrogen-bonded carbon could be identified in amorphous CNP, VA-CNT, and CNW. Also, the H : C ratios along depth were determined for the obtained materials. M. Acosta Gentoiu, R. Betancourt-Riera, S. Vizireanu, I. Burducea, V. Marascu, S. D. Stoica, B. I. Bita, G. Dinescu, and R. Riera Copyright © 2017 M. Acosta Gentoiu et al. All rights reserved. Phytosynthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Using the Hot Water Extract of Mixed Woodchip Powder and Their Antibacterial Efficacy Mon, 11 Sep 2017 09:24:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/8734758/ This study investigates the phytosynthesis, characterization, and antibacterial efficacy of silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs) produced using the hot water extract of mixed woodchip powder. The woodchip extract (WCE) was successfully used as both a reducing and stabilizing agent for the phytosynthesis of both crystalline metal NPs. The effects of different physicochemical factors affecting the formation of the metal NPs including reaction pH, concentration of the precursor metal salts, amount of WCE, and external energy input were evaluated. The characterization of the metal NPs was performed by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis. In addition, the antibacterial efficacy of the phytosynthesized NPs was measured. The AgNPs showed clear antibacterial activity against four representative bacterial strains. However, the AuNPs did not exhibit bactericidal activity, probably due to their surface modifications and relatively large size. These results suggest that the phytosynthesis of the metal NPs using WCE is highly efficient, and its convenience makes it suitable for use in large-scale production. Min-Ho Joe, Hyun-Tak Jeong, Hyung-Min Lee, Hae-Jun Park, Dong-Ho Kim, Don-Hee Park, and Suk Bai Copyright © 2017 Min-Ho Joe et al. All rights reserved. Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ni Doped ZnS Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/1603450/ Diluted magnetic semiconductors with different consistency ratio ( = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method using ethylenediamine as a modifier. The influence of Ni doping concentration on the microstructure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties of undoped and Ni doped ZnS nanocrystals was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (XEDS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence spectra (PL), and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The experiment results show the substitution of Ni2+ on Zn2+ sites without changing the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnS and generate single-phase with good crystallization. The lattice constant causes distortion and decreases with the increase of Ni2+ doped concentration. The appearance of the samples is one-dimensional well-dispersed nanorods. UV-vis spectra reveal the band gap of all samples greater than that of bulk ZnS (3.67 eV), and blue shift phenomenon occurs. The photoluminescence spectra of undoped and doped samples possess the broad blue emission band in the range of 400–650 nm; the PL intensities of nanorods increase with the increase of Ni content comparing to pure ZnS and reach maximum for = 0.03. Magnetic measurements indicated that the undoped ZnS samples are superparamagnetic, whereas the doped samples exhibit ferromagnetism. Meirong Wu, Zhiqiang Wei, Wenhua Zhao, Xuan Wang, and Jinlong Jiang Copyright © 2017 Meirong Wu et al. All rights reserved. CO Gas-Induced Resonance Frequency Shift of ZnO-Functionalized Microcantilever in Humid Air Sun, 10 Sep 2017 08:01:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/4824607/ Resonance frequency shift of a zinc oxide- (ZnO-) functionalized microcantilever as a response to carbon monoxide (CO) gas has been investigated. Here, ZnO microrods were grown on the microcantilever surface by a hydrothermal method. The measurement of resonance frequency of the microcantilever vibrations due to the gas was carried out in two conditions, that is, gas flow with and without air pumping into an experiment chamber. The results show that the resonance frequency of the ZnO-functionalized microcantilever decreases because of CO in air pumping condition, while it increases when CO is introduced without air pumping. Such change in the resonance frequency is influenced by water vapor condition, and a possible model based on water-CO combination was proposed. Lia Aprilia, Ratno Nuryadi, Dwi Gustiono, Nurmahmudi, Arief Udhiarto, Djoko Hartanto, Brian Yuliarto, Makoto Hosoda, Yoichiro Neo, and Hidenori Mimura Copyright © 2017 Lia Aprilia et al. All rights reserved. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Light Trapping in Metal/Silicon Nanobowl Arrays for Thin Film Photovoltaics Sun, 10 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/4270794/ Enhancing the light absorption in thin film silicon solar cells with nanophotonic and plasmonic structures is important for the realization of high efficiency solar cells with significant cost reduction. In this work, we investigate periodic arrays of conformal metal/silicon nanobowl arrays (MSNBs) for light trapping applications in silicon solar cells. They exhibited excellent light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to infrared regimes. The optimized structure (MSNBsH) covered by SiO2 passivation layer and hemisphere Ag back reflection layer has a maximal short-circuit density () 25.5 mA/cm2, which is about 88.8% higher than flat structure counterpart, and the light-conversion efficiency () is increased two times from 6.3% to 12.6%. The double-side textures offer a promising approach to high efficiency ultrathin silicon solar cells. Ruinan Sun, Haoxin Fu, Jiang Wang, Yachun Wang, Xingchen Du, Haichuan Zhao, Chenliang Huo, and Kuiqing Peng Copyright © 2017 Ruinan Sun et al. All rights reserved. Nanosized Minicells Generated by Lactic Acid Bacteria for Drug Delivery Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/6847297/ Nanotechnology has the ability to target specific areas of the body, controlling the drug release and significantly increasing the bioavailability of active compounds. Organic and inorganic nanoparticles have been developed for drug delivery systems. Many delivery systems are through clinical stages for development and market. Minicell, a nanosized cell generated by bacteria, is a potential particle for drug delivery because of its size, safety, and biodegradability. Minicells produced by bacteria could drive therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, and other diseases by targeting. In addition, minicells generated by lactic acid bacteria being probiotics are more interesting than others because of their benefits like safety, immunological improvement, and biodegradation. This review aims to highlight the stages of development of nanoparticle for drug delivery and discuss their advantages and limitations to clarify minicells as a new opportunity for the development of potential nanoparticle for drug delivery. Huu Ngoc Nguyen, Santa Romero Jovel, and Tu Hoang Khue Nguyen Copyright © 2017 Huu Ngoc Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Carbon Modification on the Morphological, Structural, and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pneumatic Spray Pyrolysis Technique Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/9095301/ This paper reveals the influence of doping on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique (PSP), using zinc ethoxide Zn as the precursor. The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, HRTEM, SEM-EDX, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and RS. RS analysis has revealed that the unmodified ZnO and carbon modified ZnO samples have characteristic Raman optic modes at 325 cm−1, 373 cm−1, and 432 cm−1 belonging to Wurtzite ZnO structure. The XRD ZnO (C:ZnO) NPS have characteristic peaks of hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO structure. HRTEM analysis has revealed that the synthesized ZnO NPs have particle size range of 8.8–11.82 nm. EDX spectra of both unmodified and modified ZnO nanoparticles have revealed prominent peaks at 0.51 keV, 1.01 keV, 1.49 keV, 8.87 keV, and 9.86 keV. The occurrence of these peaks in the EDX spectra endorses the existence of Zn and O atoms in the PSP synthesized ZnO NPs. The UV-Vis spectroscopy has revealed a red shift of the absorption edge, with the increase in C dopant level. The effect of nanocrystallite size and the gradual prominence of C into ZnO matrix due to increase in C dopant level in the PSP synthesized ZnO NPs was meticulously elaborated through Raman spectroscopy analysis. R. Taziwa, E. Meyer, D. Katwire, and L. Ntozakhe Copyright © 2017 R. Taziwa et al. All rights reserved. Advanced In Situ I-V Measurements Used in the Study of Porous Structures Growth on Silicon Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/9503297/ The rate of oxide formation during growth of pores structures on silicon was investigated by in situ I-V measurements. The measurements were designed to get two I-V curves in a short time (total time for the two measurements was 300 seconds) taking into account the gap (in mA/cm2) for each corresponding voltage. The in situ I-V measurements were made at different pore depth/time, at the electrolyte-pore tip interface, while etching takes place based on p-type Si. The results showed increasing, decreasing, and constant I-V gap in time, for macropores, nanopores, and electropolishing regimes, respectively. This was related to the expected diffusion limitation of oxide forming (H2O) molecules reaching the electrolyte-pore tip and the anodizing current, while etching takes place. The method can be developed further and has the potential to be applied in other electrochemically etched porous semiconductor materials. Amare Benor Copyright © 2017 Amare Benor. All rights reserved. An Accurate PSO-GA Based Neural Network to Model Growth of Carbon Nanotubes Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/9702384/ By combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithms (GA) this paper offers an innovative algorithm to train artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the purpose of calculating the experimental growth parameters of CNTs. The paper explores experimentally obtaining data to train ANNs, as a method to reduce simulation time while ensuring the precision of formal physics models. The results are compared with conventional particle swarm optimization based neural network (CPSONN) and Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) techniques. The results show that PSOGANN can be successfully utilized for modeling the experimental parameters that are critical for the growth of CNTs. Mohsen Asadnia, Amir Mahyar Khorasani, and Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani Copyright © 2017 Mohsen Asadnia et al. All rights reserved. PLA-Based Hybrid and Composite Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds as Potential Materials for Tissue Engineering Wed, 30 Aug 2017 07:04:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/9246802/ The aim of the study was to manufacture poly(lactic acid)- (PLA-) based nanofibrous nonwovens that were modified using two types of modifiers, namely, gelatin- (GEL-) based nanofibres and carbon nanotubes (CNT). Hybrid nonwovens consisting of PLA and GEL nanofibres (PLA/GEL), as well as CNT-modified PLA nanofibres with GEL nanofibres (PLA + CNT/GEL), in the form of mats, were manufactured using concurrent-electrospinning technique (co-ES). The ability of such hybrid structures as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering was studied. Both types of hybrid samples and one-component PLA and CNTs-modified PLA mats were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurements, and biological and mechanical tests. The morphology, microstructure, and selected properties of the materials were analyzed. Biocompatibility and bioactivity in contact with normal human osteoblasts (NHOst) were studied. The coelectrospun PLA and GEL nanofibres retained their structures in hybrid samples. Both types of hybrid nonwovens were not cytotoxic and showed better osteoinductivity in comparison to scaffolds made from pure PLA. These samples also showed significantly reduced hydrophobicity compared to one-component PLA nonwovens. The CNT-contained PLA nanofibres improved mechanical properties of hybrid samples and such a 3D system appears to be interesting for potential application as a tissue engineering scaffold. Anna Magiera, Jarosław Markowski, Elzbieta Menaszek, Jan Pilch, and Stanislaw Blazewicz Copyright © 2017 Anna Magiera et al. All rights reserved. Bacterial Stress and Osteoblast Responses on Graphene Oxide-Hydroxyapatite Electrodeposited on Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays Wed, 30 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/2194614/ To develop bone implant material with excellent antibacterial and biocompatible properties, nanotubular titanium surface was coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) and graphene oxide (GO). Layer-by-layer deposition was achieved by coating HA on an anodic-grown titanium dioxide nanotube array (ATi) with electrolytic deposition, followed by coating with GO using anodic-electrophoretic deposition. The antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria was determined based on the percentage of surviving bacteria and the amount of ribonucleic acid (RNA) leakage and correlated with membrane disruption. The oxidative stress induced in both strains of bacteria by GO was determined by cyclic voltammetry and is discussed. Importantly, the antibacterial GO coatings on HA-ATi were not cytotoxic to preosteoblasts and promoted osteoblast proliferation after 5 days and calcium deposition after 21 days in standard cell culture conditions. Yardnapar Parcharoen, Preecha Termsuksawad, and Sirinrath Sirivisoot Copyright © 2017 Yardnapar Parcharoen et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation and Optimization of Paper-Based SERS Substrate for Potential Label-Free Raman Analysis of Seminal Plasma Mon, 28 Aug 2017 07:50:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/4807064/ Characterization and optimization of paper SERS substrate were performed in detail, in which morphologies and distribution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the paper substrate pretreated with different concentrations of NaCl and the subsequent soaking with colloidal AgNPs for different period of time were evaluated. Our results show that both NaCl concentration and soaking time with AgNPs have a significant influence on SERS enhancement, showing that an optimal EF of 2.27 × 107 was achieved when the paper substrate was treated with 20 mM NaCl and one-hour soak with AgNPs. Moreover, seminal plasma (SP) was specifically selected to evaluate the performance of paper-based SERS substrate for potential clinical detection and diagnosis. The optimization of the paper SERS substrate demonstrates potential applications in reliable on-site detection of SP and clinical diagnosis of fertility-related diseases as well. Zufang Huang, Gang Cao, Yan Sun, Shengrong Du, Yongzeng Li, Shangyuan Feng, Juqiang Lin, and Jinping Lei Copyright © 2017 Zufang Huang et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Xanthan-Based Film Incorporated with Silver Nanoparticles for Potential Application in the Nonhealing Infectious Wound Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/6802397/ Xanthan gum is a high molecular weight polysaccharide biocompatible to biological systems, so its products promise high potential in medicine. In this study, we crosslinked xanthan gum with citric acid to develop a transparent film for protecting the wound. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are incorporated into the film to enhance the antimicrobial property of our biomaterial. This paper discussed the characteristics and manufacturing of this nanocomposite dressing. The safety of the dressing was studied using fibroblasts (L929) by the method of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and staining of ethidium homodimer (PI) and calcein AM. The bacterial inhibition test and application of the dressing to nonhealing wounds infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The results indicated that the dressing could restrict the formation of biofilms, reduce inflammatory reactions, and promote the angiogenesis of granulation tissues in infectious wounds. Therefore, this dressing has a great advantage over traditional clinical products especially when administered under the condition of infections or for the purpose of infection prevention. Jinjian Huang, Jianan Ren, Guopu Chen, Youming Deng, Gefei Wang, and Xiuwen Wu Copyright © 2017 Jinjian Huang et al. All rights reserved. Physical Properties Investigation of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Material Inkjet Printing Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/3501903/ The article is focused on the study of the optical properties of inkjet-printed graphene oxide (GO) layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to its unique optical and electrical properties, GO can be used as, for example, a transparent and flexible electrode material in organic and printed electronics. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to characterize the optical response of the GO layer and its reduced form (rGO, obtainable, for example, by reduction of prepared layers by either annealing, UV radiation, or chemical reduction) in the visible range. The thicknesses of the layers were determined by a mechanical profilometer and used as an input parameter for optical modeling. Ellipsometric spectra were analyzed according to the dispersion model and the influence of the reduction of GO on optical constants is discussed. Thus, detailed analysis of the ellipsometric data provides a unique tool for qualitative and also quantitative description of the optical properties of GO thin films for electronic applications. Veronika Schmiedova, Jan Pospisil, Alexander Kovalenko, Petr Ashcheulov, Ladislav Fekete, Tomas Cubon, Peter Kotrusz, Oldrich Zmeskal, and Martin Weiter Copyright © 2017 Veronika Schmiedova et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Irradiation Time on Structural, Morphological Properties of ZnO-NRs Films Deposited by MW-CBD and Their Photodiode Applications Tue, 22 Aug 2017 06:44:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/6308174/ Microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) was used to deposit zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) films by using different microwave irradiation time. The films exhibit a good crystallinity having a hexagonal wurtzite phase formation. Although the dominant preferred orientation was not observed for the ZnO-5 and ZnO-10, ZnO-8 showed (002) preferred orientation. The emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed almost randomly oriented hexagonal nanorods on the surface. A slight decrease in the length of the observed hexagonal nanorods due to the increase in the irradiation time was observed, changing from 550 nm to 300 nm. The p-Si/n-ZnO-NRs heterojunction photodiodes were fabricated. The current-voltage characteristics of these photodiodes were investigated under dark and different illumination intensity. An increase in the reverse current with increasing illumination intensity confirmed that the fabricated photodiodes exhibited a photoconducting behavior. In addition, the barrier height and series resistance values of the photodiodes were determined from capacitance-voltage measurements. Saliha Ilican, Kamuran Gorgun, Yasemin Caglar, and Mujdat Caglar Copyright © 2017 Saliha Ilican et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Absorption of Antibiotic from Aqueous Solutions over MnO2@SA/Mn Beads and Their In Situ Regeneration by Heterogeneous Fenton-Like Reaction Mon, 21 Aug 2017 06:20:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/3174393/ Alginate has been extensively used as absorbents due to its excellent properties. However, the practical application of pure alginate has been restricted since the saturated adsorbent has weak physical structure and could not be regenerated easily. In this study, a low-cost and renewable composite MnO2@alginate/Mn adsorbent has been prepared facilely for the absorptive removal of antibiotic wastewater. FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses were used to characterize the samples. The norfloxacin (NOR) was used as an index of antibiotics. More specifically, the batch absorption efficiency of the adsorbents was evaluated by pH, contact time with different NOR concentration, and the temperature. Thus, the performance of absorption kinetic dynamics and isotherm equations were estimated for the adsorptive removal process. Parameters including , , and were utilized to describe the feasible adsorption process. To regenerate the saturated absorptive sites of the adsorbent, the heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions were trigged by introduction of H2O2. The results showed that the in situ regenerating has exhibited an excellent recycling stability. The high activity and the simple fabrication of the adsorbents make them attractive for the treatment of wastewater containing refractory organic compound and also provide fundamental basis and technology for further practical application. Yu Luo, Bo Bai, Honglun Wang, Yourui Suo, and Yiliang Yao Copyright © 2017 Yu Luo et al. All rights reserved. Influence of the Distance between Nanoparticles in Clusters on the Magnetization Reversal Process Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/5046076/ Fourfold magnetic nanoparticles, created from nanowires or in the form of an open square, offer the possibility of creating quaternary memory devices with four unambiguously distinguishable stable states at remanence. This feature, however, has been simulated for single magnetic nanoparticles or clusters with interparticle distances similar to the nanoparticle dimensions. For the possible use in bit-patterned media, it is important to understand the scaling behavior of the stability of the additional intermediate states with the interparticle distance. The paper investigates exemplarily nanoparticles of two shapes which were found to be optimum to gain four states at remanence. For clusters of these particles, the probability of reaching the additional intermediate states in all particles in the same field region is strongly reduced with decreased interparticle distance. The differences between both shapes indicate possible solutions for this problem in the form of new nanoparticle shapes. Andrea Ehrmann and Tomasz Blachowicz Copyright © 2017 Andrea Ehrmann and Tomasz Blachowicz. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterisation of Nobiletin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/2898342/ The objective of this manuscript was to investigate and optimise the potential of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) as a carrier system for nobiletin (NOB), which was prepared by high-pressure homogenisation method. Additionally, this study was focused on the application of NOB-loaded NLC (NOB-NLC) in functional food. Response surface method with a three-level Box–Behnken design was validated through analysis of variance, and the robustness of the design was confirmed through the correspondence between the values measured in the experiments and the predicted ones. Properties of the prepared NOB-NLC, such as -average, polydispersity, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, morphology, and crystallinity, were investigated. NOB-NLC exhibited a spherical shape with a diameter of 112.27 ± 5.33 nm, zeta potential of −35.1 ± 2.94 mV, a polydispersity index of 0.251 ± 0.058, and an EE of 81.06%±6.02%. Results from X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry of NOB-NLC reviewed that the NOB crystal might be converted to an amorphous state. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that chemical interaction was absent between the compound and lipid mixture in NOB-NLC. Wei Huang, Huating Dou, Houjiu Wu, Zhigao Sun, Hua Wang, and Linhua Huang Copyright © 2017 Wei Huang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of the Optical Properties of Pt-TiO2 Nanotubes Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:21:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/6759853/ Composite Pt-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Pt-TNTs) were synthesized via alkaline fusion-hydrothermal method (AFHM) under ambient atmosphere pressure. Further systematic characterization of Pt-TNTs was performed by using XPS, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), electric field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy (FISPS), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), TEM, and XRD. XPS spectrum showed double peaks which accounted for the presence of platinum dioxide and platinum oxide (PtO2 and PtO, ). Composition analysis showed that the particulate matters on surface of Pt-TNTs were composed of and TiO2. The results of SPS and FISPS demonstrated that the bound exciton showed sub-band gap transition characteristics with the asymmetric changes of photoelectric property corresponding to changes in polarity and strength of the external electric field. Furthermore, the influence of the changed microstructure morphology of Pt-doped TNTs on both the photovoltage spectroscopy and the lifetime of photogenerated carriers which occurred at the interfaces of Pt-TNTs was observed. Result of XRD indicated that a mixture of anatase and rutile phases prevailed in Pt-TNTs. Contact potential barriers consisting of , anatase, rutile, and are presumed to form upon particle that deposited on the surface of Pt-TNTs. Zhuwu Jiang, Jingling Li, Wei Liao, Gongduan Fan, Hualiang Yu, Lihong Chen, and Zhaoyue Su Copyright © 2017 Zhuwu Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Structural and Optical Properties of Spray Coated Carbon Hybrid Materials Applied to Transparent and Flexible Electrodes Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/3424672/ Transparent and flexible electrodes were fabricated with cost-effective spray coating technique on polyethylene terephthalate foil substrates. Particularly designed paint compositions contained mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene platelets to achieve their desired rheology and electrooptical layers parameters. Electrodes were prepared in standard technological conditions without the need of clean rooms or high temperature processing. The sheet resistance and optical transmittance of fabricated layers were tuned with the number of coatings; then the most suitable relation of these parameters was designated through the figure of merit. Optical measurements were performed in the range of wavelengths from 250 to 2500 nm with a spectrophotometer with the integration sphere. Spectral dependence of total and diffusive optical transmission for thin films with graphene platelet covered by multiwalled carbon nanotubes was designated which allowed determining the relative absorbance. Layer parameters such as thickness, refractive index, energy gap, and effective reflectance coefficient show the correlation of electrooptical properties with the technological conditions. Moreover the structural properties of fabricated layers were examined by means of the X-ray diffraction. Grzegorz Wroblewski, Barbara Swatowska, Wieslaw Powroznik, Malgorzata Jakubowska, and Tomasz Stapinski Copyright © 2017 Grzegorz Wroblewski et al. All rights reserved. The Advances of Carbon Nanotubes in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutics Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/3418932/ Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), one of the unique one-dimensional nanomaterials, have gained great attention because of their specific characters, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility in the past few decades. CNTs can be functionalized via different methods to perform their specific functions. CNTs have been used in various areas of biomedicine as nanocarriers, including cancer diagnosis and therapy. Different molecules such as peptide, antigen, and nucleic acid can be delivered to cancer cells by CNTs with high efficiency. In this review, we summarized the properties of CNTs and the method of CNTs functionalization and illustrated their application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Zhou Chen, Aili Zhang, Xiaobing Wang, Jing Zhu, Yamin Fan, Hongmei Yu, and Zhaogang Yang Copyright © 2017 Zhou Chen et al. All rights reserved. Low-Density Polyethylene/Polyamide/Clay Blend Nanocomposites: Effect of Morphology of Clay on Their Photooxidation Resistance Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/3549475/ The photooxidation behaviour of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polyamide (PA) blends, containing polyamide 11 (PA11) or polyamide 6 (PA6), has been investigated in the absence and presence of a small amount of commercial organomodified clay (OMMT). The polymer blends LDPE/PA11 and LDPE/PA6 at 75/25 wt./wt.%, with and without OMMT, have been prepared by a two-step procedure: extrusion and sheet formulation. The formulated complex systems have been subjected to accurate morphological analysis in order to evaluate the effect of the OMMT presence on the refinement of the blend morphology. Furthermore, the produced sheets have been subjected to arterial UVB exposure and the variations of the mechanical properties and chemical structure of all the investigated samples have been monitored as a function of the exposure time. Finally, the rate of the photodegradation of the complex systems has been related to the morphological changes of these systems upon OMMT addition. N. Tz. Dintcheva, G. Filippone, R. Arrigo, and F. P. La Mantia Copyright © 2017 N. Tz. Dintcheva et al. All rights reserved. Stoichiometry Calculation in BaxSr1−xTiO3 Solid Solution Thin Films, Prepared by RF Cosputtering, Using X-Ray Diffraction Peak Positions and Boltzmann Sigmoidal Modelling Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/4308294/ A novel procedure based on the use of the Boltzmann equation to model the parameter, the film deposition rate, and the optical band gap of BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films is proposed. The BaxSr1−xTiO3 films were prepared by RF cosputtering from BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 targets changing the power applied to each magnetron to obtain different Ba/Sr contents. The method to calculate consisted of fitting the angular shift of (110), (111), and (211) diffraction peaks observed as the density of substitutional Ba2+ increases in the solid solution when the applied RF power increases, followed by a scale transformation from applied power to parameter using the Boltzmann equation. The Ba/Sr ratio was obtained from X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy; the comparison with the X-ray diffraction derived composition shows a remarkable coincidence while the discrepancies offer a valuable diagnosis on the sputtering flux and phase composition. The proposed method allows a quick setup of the RF cosputtering system to control film composition providing a versatile tool to optimization of the process. J. Reséndiz-Muñoz, J. L. Fernández-Muñoz, M. A. Corona-Rivera, M. Zapata-Torres, A. Márquez-Herrera, M. Meléndez-Lira, F. Caballero-Briones, F. Chale-Lara, and O. Zelaya-Ángel Copyright © 2017 J. Reséndiz-Muñoz et al. All rights reserved.