Table 1
(a) Baseline characteristics in adults (means ± standard deviations). “+” measure present, “−” measure absent.

Telemedicine++++Total
Financial benefit++++
Dual diet++++
Calorie restriction++++++++

𝑁 342824357554142
Age ( 𝑦 )41 ± 638 ± 440 ± 738 ± 440 ± 839 ± 539 ± 438 ± 539 ± 5
Male/female ( 𝑛 )16/1810/187/1711/242/52/32/31/351/91
Smoking status, 𝑛 (%)
 current11 (32.4)10 (35.7) 4 (16.7)10 (28.6)//1 (20.0)/36 (25.4)
 former12 (35.3)10 (35.7) 6 (25.0)14 (40.0)/1 (20.0)1 (20.0)1 (25.0)45 (31.7)
 never11 (32.4) 8 (28.6)14 (58.3)11 (31.4)7 (100)4 (80.0)3 (60.0)3 (75.0)61 (43.0)
Hyperglycemia, n (%)3 (8.8)1 (3.6)1 (4.2)2 (5.7)////7 (4.9)
BMI (kg/m²) 34 ± 6 33 ± 5 33 ± 6 33 ± 5 34 ± 8 33 ± 4 31 ± 3 37 ± 3 33 ± 6
Height (cm) 175 ± 9 172 ± 8 170 ± 9 170 ± 9 171 ± 13 175 ± 7 171 ± 12 168 ± 8 172 ± 9
Weight (kg) 104 ± 19 99 ± 17 95 ± 21 95 ± 16 102 ± 32 100 ± 12 90 ± 12 105 ± 17 99 ± 19
Waist circumference (cm) 110 ± 13 107 ± 12 106 ± 13 106 ± 13 99 ± 8 105 ± 8 102 ± 12 114 ± 12 107 ± 12
Systolic BP (mmHg) 138 ± 20 132 ± 11 130 ± 22 127 ± 23 121 ± 22 132 ± 19 126 ± 15 119 ± 19 131 ± 20
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 87 ± 11 84 ± 17 82 ± 12 82 ± 11 76 ± 14 80 ± 7 82 ± 13 78 ± 15 83 ± 12
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.6 5.4 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 1.5 5.2 ± 0.6 5.1 ± 0.5 5.5 ± 0.3 5.1 ± 0.3 5.1 ± 0.3 5.3 ± 0.9
Insulin (pmol/L) 62 ± 37 49 ± 23 51 ± 29 57 ± 31 50 ± 23 95 ± 66 54 ± 16 87 ± 37 57 ± 33
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.9 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 0.9 5.2 ± 1.1 5.1 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 0.8 5.2 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 0.8 5.3 ± 1.0
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.9 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.9
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3
Triacylgylcerol (mmol/L) 1.8 ± 1.0 1.3 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 2.1 1.5 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 1.2
hs-CRP (mg/L) 5.3 ± 6.8 3.3 ± 3.7 4.2 ± 4.1 4.3 ± 5.2 2.5 ± 1.8 3.6 ± 2.0 21.7 ± 25.1 2.7 ± 1.7 4.8 ± 7.2

(b) Baseline characteristics in children (means ± standard deviations). “+” measure present, “−” measure absent.

Telemedicine++++Total
Financial benefit++++
Dual diet++++
Calorie restriction++++++++

𝑁 252322295654119
Age ( 𝑦 ) 10 ± 2 10 ± 2 10 ± 3 11 ± 3 10 ± 2 10 ± 2 9 ± 2 10 ± 2 10 ± 2
Male/female ( 𝑛 ) 12/13 8/15 7/15 17/12 4/1 4/2 0/5 2/254/65
BMI (kg/m²) 26 ± 5 26 ± 6 24 ± 3 26 ± 4 26 ± 7 25 ± 5 23 ± 4 27 ± 7 25 ± 5
BMI-SDS 2.08 ± 0.63 2.06 ± 0.70 1.94 ± 0.40 2.11 ± 0.49 1.99 ± 0.69 1.98 ± 0.62 1.88 ± 0.54 1.74 ± 0.41 2.03 ± 0.56
Height (cm) 151 ± 14 150 ± 11 148 ± 13 152 ± 14 148 ± 9 153 ± 15 145 ± 9 146 ± 19 150 ± 13
Weight (kg) 60 ± 21 60 ± 21 54 ± 17 61 ± 19 57 ± 20 61 ± 21 50 ± 12 51 ± 21 58 ± 19
Systolic BP (mmHg) 111 ± 16 109 ± 14 111 ± 20 106 ± 17 102 ± 10 97 ± 10 105 ± 19 116 ± 23 108 ± 17
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 70 ± 11 72 ± 11 73 ± 14 66 ± 11 58 ± 8 58 ± 8 55 ± 11 66 ± 5 68 ± 12
Glucose (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 0.3 4.9 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.4 5.0 ± 0.4 5.0 ± 0.2 4.6 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.3 4.9 ± 0.4
Insulin (pmol/L) 56 ± 28 50 ± 26 52 ± 28 56 ± 34 71 ± 75 47 ± 9 64 ± 55 73 ± 66 56 ± 34
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.5 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 1.0 4.3 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.9
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.9 ± 0.7 2.6 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.4 2.7 ± 0.4 2.7 ± 0.7
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.3
Triacylgylcerol (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.6 0.8 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.6
hs-CRP (mg/L) 2.2 ± 1.8 2.8 ± 5.8 2.4 ± 4.2 2.1 ± 2.0 1.0 ± 0.7 3.5 ± 4.1 6.1 ± 10.5 1.0 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 3.9