Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2011 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

Table 3

Anthropometric measurements, resting metabolic rate and physical activity level at baseline and changes in these measurements from baseline to Week 12 for each group.

VariableBaseline
mean (SD)
Change in hazelnut
mean (SE)
Change in chocolate
mean (SE)
Change in control
mean (SE)
Change in potato crisp
mean (SE)
Overall P value*

Anthropometry(n = 118)(n = 32)(n = 29)(n = 27)(n = 25)
Body weightΥ69.55 (11.37)0.83 (0.23)0.59 (0.43)0.46 (0.26)0.50 (0.31)0.655
BMI (kg/m2)23.76 (2.99)0.28 (0.08)0.21 (0.14)0.14 (0.08)0.15 (0.11)0.725
Fat mass (kg)18.77 (7.92)−0.23 (0.28)−0.42 (0.35)−0.29 (0.27)−0.53 (0.30)0.889
Body fat (%)26.89 (10.17)−0.75 (0.32)−1.23 (0.39)−0.84 (0.33)−1.09 (0.35)0.713
Waist fat (%)29.62 (11.08)1.51 (0.52)0.86 (0.64)0.67 (0.54)0.76 (0.69)0.800
Waist circumference (cm)80.74 (9.45)2.13 (0.89)1.30 (0.64)1.36 (0.62)−0.53 (0.71)0.106
RMR(n = 52)(n = 14)(n = 12)(n = 13)(n = 10)
RMR (kcal/day)1489.29 (275.82)−56.86 (58.40)−69.92 (89.94)−79.62 (38.39)11.70 (69.37)0.922
RQ0.86 (1.08)1.01 (1.02)1.03 (1.04)1.00 (1.02)1.01 (1.02)0.876
PA level(n = 114)(n = 29)(n = 29)(n = 28)(n = 22)
No. of steps/day9215 (3691)152 (515)−260 (685)−1205 (576)190 (481)0.217
Duration (mins)28 (16)9 (10)9 (10)8 (10)9 (10)0.668

BMI: body mass index; RMR: resting metabolic rate; RQ: respiratory quotient; PA: physical activity; no.: number.
*Overall P-values adjust for baseline value, sex, baseline age, and baseline BMI.
Geometric mean, accompanied by ratio of geometric mean.
ΥBody weight was measured with the use of bioelectrical impedance analyser.
Fat mass, percent body fat and waist fat were measured with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.