Table 1: Participant characteristics.

Study 1Study 2

Age, y24 ± 426 ± 3
Body mass, kg72.9 ± 3.965.8 ± 9.0
Height, m1.70 ± 0.091.70 ± 0.10
BMI, kg/m225.0 ± 1.122.8 ± 0.9
Body fat, kg24.2 ± 11.419.3 ± 3.7
Body fat, %32.4 ± 2.029.8 ± 6.5
Lean mass, kg45.3 ± 8.143.6 ± 8.7
Peak bike power, wattsn/a145 ± 43
Peak VO2, mL/kg/minn/a26.4 ± 5.9
Peak heart rate, beats/minn/a179 ± 15
Total cholesterol, mmol/L3.98 ± 0.994.03 ± 0.90
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.21 ± 0.371.11 ± 0.33
Triglycerides, mmol/L0.74 ± 0.390.89 ± 0.31
C-reactive protein, nmol/L18.4 ± 19.911.0 ± 5.2
Glucose, mmol/L4.7 ± 0.24.8 ± 0.5
Insulin, pmol/L41 ± 2841 ± 27
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg109 ± 9112 ± 10
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg68 ± 862 ± 7

Values are mean ± SD for 14 females and 4 males in Study 1 and 7 females and 5 males in Study 2. Body composition determined by DEXA. Peak exercise responses were measured in Study 2 during a bicycle test to volitional exhaustion (not performed in Study 1). Blood test results are from a fasting sample collected during the first meal test in Study 1 and the No Ex trial in Study 2.