Figure 5: Molecular mechanisms by which fructose diets, inactivity, and gluttony increase preadipocyte number and enlargement via increases in ROS generated by the renin-AngII system and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Hyperglycemia results in increased ROS production within the mitochondria via a number of mechanisms including a reduction in the glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio. ROS generation mediates a proinflammatory cascade resulting in increase of adipogenesis, release of inflammatory cytokines, and decrease in adiponectin leading to insulin resistance.