Table 2: Most important beneficial effects of probiotics.

Beneficial effectProbiotic microorganismType of trialOutcome Reference

MetabolismLactose digestionLactobacillus casei ShirotaTarget group of patients, lactose maldigestionLactobacillus casei Shirota seems to improve symptoms in lactose-intolerant patients[46]
Lipid metabolismLactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus curvatus
RandomizedLactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus reduced cholesterol in plasma and liver[47]
Oxalate metabolismLactobacillus casei Target group of patients, stone-forming patientsLactobacillus casei processed lowering effect upon urinary oxalate excretion[48]

Chronic intestinal inflammatory and functional disordersInflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Crohn’s diseaseSaccharomyces boulardii Pilot studySaccharomyces boulardii controlled inflammation and promoted epithelial restitution[49]
Ulcerative colitis
Combined lactobacilli and enterococci Randomized Effective treatment by mediating immunological response[50]
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)Lactobacillus plantarum Double blind, placebo controlled, and parallel designedLactobacillus plantarum provided effective symptom relief

Allergic diseasesEczemaLactobacillus rhamnosus Randomized, double blind, placebo controlledLactobacillus rhamnosus showed protective effect against eczema[52]
Atopic dermatitisLactobacillus plantarum Randomized, double blind, placebo controlledLactobacillus plantarum was beneficial in the treatment of pediatric AD[53]
Allergic rhinitisLactobacillus salivarius Randomized, double blind controlledLactobacillus salivarius reduced symptoms and drug usage in children[54]
AsthmaLactobacillus gasseri Randomized, placebo controlledLactobacillus gasseri had clinical benefits in asthma treatment[55]

Reduction of risk factors of infection Infectious diarrhea
Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium longum Randomized, single blindSynbiotic mixture showed reduction in diarrhea duration[56]
Necrotizing enterocolitis (infants) Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis Randomized, placebo controlledProtective effect in clinical NEC[57]
Helicobacter pylori Lactobacillus acidophilus,
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus,
Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium infantis Bifidobacterium breve
Randomized, double blind, placebo controlledPositive effect on the eradication of H. pylori infection[58]

Respiratory tract infectionsEar, nose, and throat infectionsLactobacillus rhamnosus GGRandomized, double blind, and placebo controlledLactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduced the risk of early acute otitis, the antibiotic use, and the risk of recurrent respiratory infections during first year of life[59]

MalignancyCervical cancerBifidobacterium adolescentis Prospective controlled pilot studyProbiotic studies promoted the clearance of HPV-related cytological abnormalities[32]