Table 5: Characteristic examples of application of probiotic cell immobilization in food production.

Immobilization/encapsulation supportProbiotic microorganismProbiotic food productReference

Alginate encapsulation
Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis Mayonnaise[60]

Apple pieces, quince piecesLactobacillus casei ATCC 393Fermented milk[61]

Apple, pear piecesLactobacillus casei ATCC 393Cheese[62]

Chitosan coated alginate beadsLactobacillus casei 01, Lactobacillus acidophilus 547Yogurt[63]

FibresLactobacillus rhamnosus E800, E522
Lactobacillus acidophilus DD910
Apple juice, chocolate coated breakfast cereals[64]

Calcium induced, encapsulated alginate starch Bifidobacterium lactis DD920Yogurt[65]

Microencapsulation in alginateLactobacillus reuteri Sausages[66]

Whey protein Lactobacillus rhamnosus R011Biscuits, frozen cranberry juice, and vegetable juice[67]

Calcium alginate Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 10695Tomato juice[68]

Rinds of durian, mangosteen, and jackfruitLactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, 2631, 2333, and 1733 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTDC 0411Soy milk[69]

Calcium alginateLactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356Yogurt[70]

Sodium alginateLactobacillus casei NCDC 298Synbiotic milk chocolate[71]

Fruits, oat piecesLactobacillus casei ATCC 393, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Yogurt[72]

Wheat grainsLactobacillus casei ATCC 393Fermented sausage[unpublished results]