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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2015, Article ID 635817, 8 pages
Research Article

Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

1Ndola Central Hospital, School of Medicine, 10101 Ndola, Zambia
2School of Medicine, Copperbelt University, 10101 Ndola, Zambia
3Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
4Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
5Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
6Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, 10101 Lusaka, Zambia
7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
8Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
9Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Bethesda, MD 20850, USA
10Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Received 13 December 2014; Accepted 14 May 2015

Academic Editor: Duo Li

Copyright © 2015 Christopher K. Nyirenda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin . Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, ) and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, ). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk.