Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2015 / Article / Tab 4

Review Article

Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance

Table 4

Summary of research supporting the PRISE Protocol of performance enhancing diets for athletic performance.

Author groupNutrientNumber of participantsDuration (days)DesignDosePerformance improvements reported

Resistance
Antonio and Ciccone, 2013 [55]Creatine1928Randomized5 g·d−1(i) Increased lean body mass
(ii) Increased 1RM bench press
(iii) Supplementation after workout was more effective than before workout
Gouttebarge et al. 2012 [54] Creatine165Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled20 g·d−1(i) 2.2% increase in body mass
(ii) 2.7% increase in vertical jump peak power
Souza-Junior et al. 2011 [56]Creatine 2256Randomized20 g·d−1 for 7 days
5 g·d−1 thereafter
(included maltodextrin)
(i) Increased cross sectional area of thigh and arm muscle
(ii) Increased 1RM squat and bench press
(iii) Comparable results despite reduced training volume due to reduced rest intervals during resistance training
Ispoglou et al. 2011 [87]Leucine2684Double-blind, placebo-controlled4 g·d−1(i) Increased 5RM for 5 of 8 resistance exercises

Intervals
de Salles Painelli et al. 2014 [112]Beta-alanine40
20 = BA
19 = PL
4 wksDouble-blind6.4 g·d−1(i) Increased total work done
(ii) Increased mean power output
Ducker et al. 2013 [104]Beta-alanine1828Randomized, placebo-controlled80 mg·kg−1 BM·d−1(i) Improved 800 m track performance
Van Thienen et al. 2009 [105]Beta-alanine178 wksDouble-blind 2 g·d−1 (days 1–14), then 3 g·d−1 (days 15–27), then 4 g·d−1 (days 28–56)(i) Increased sprint performance following a 110 min cycling race
Abian-Vicen et al. 2014 [129]Caffeine16Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover3 mg·kg−1
(as part of energy drink)
(i) Increased single and repeated jump height
Del Coso et al. 2014 [127]Caffeine15Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover3 mg·kg−1
(as part of energy drink)
(i) Increased single and repeated jump height
(ii) Increased ball velocity for volleyball spike
(iii) Reduced time to complete agility test
Del Coso et al. 2013 [131]Caffeine16Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover3 mg·kg−1
(as part of energy drink)
(i) Increased power output during repeated jumps
(ii) Increased running speed during rugby practice games
Del Coso et al. 2013 [132]Caffeine26Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover3 mg·kg−1
(as part of energy drink)
(i) Increased number of sprints and distance covered (total and at running speed above 20 km·h−1) during a simulated rugby match
Duncan et al. 2014 [134]Caffeine10Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover6 mg·kg−1(i) Increased torque production during isokinetic knee extension at 30, 150, and 300°·s−1.
Lane et al. 2013 [133]Caffeine123 mg·kg−1(i) 2.8% increase in mean power output during HIIT with normal glycogen levels
(ii) 3.5% increase in mean power output during HIIT with low glycogen levels
Lara et al. 2014 [130]Caffeine18Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover3 mg·kg−1
(as part of energy drink)
(i) Increased jump height
(ii) Increased sprint speed
(iii) Increased number of sprints and distance covered (total and at running speed above 18 km·h−1) during a simulated soccer match
Silva-Cavalcante et al. 2013 [135]Caffeine7Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover5 mg·kg−1(i) 4.1% reduction in time to complete 4 km cycling time trial with low glycogen levels
(ii) 10.8% increase in mean power output during 4 km cycling time trial with low glycogen levels
Camic et al. 2014 [140]Creatine (polyethylene glycosylated)7728Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled1.25 g·d−1
2.5 g·d−1
(i) Increase in vertical jump height
(ii) Increase in bench press endurance
(iii) Reduction in times for shuttle-run and 3-cond drill
(iv) Increase in body mass
Oliver et al. 2013 [142]Creatine136No control group20 g·d−1
(included glucose)
(i) Increased power at lactate threshold (P = 0.11), time to fatigue (P = 0.056), and maximal power output (P = 0.082) during incremental cycling to exhaustion
Zuniga et al. 2012 [141]Creatine227Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled20 g·d−1(i) Increased mean power during two Wingate tests separated by 7 minutes
Ducker et al. 2013 [155]Sodium bicarbonate24Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled0.3 g·kg−1(i) Reduced total, mean, and best times during repeated maximal running sprints
Mero et al. 2013 [156]Sodium bicarbonate13Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover0.3 g·kg−1(i) Reduced time to complete second of 2 maximal 100 m freestyle swims separated by 12 minutes
Mueller et al. 2013 [154]Sodium bicarbonate85Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover0.3 g·kg−1(i) 23.5% increase in time to exhaustion during cycling at critical power
(ii) Improved performance maintained throughout 5 consecutive days of supplementation and testing

Stretching
Black et al. 2010 [177]Ginger 25Double-blind, crossover study2 g of raw  
2 g of heat-treated
(i) Decreased perception of pain following eccentric exercise
Chuengsamarn et al. 2014 [178]Curcumin213
107 = curcumin
106 = placebo
6 monthsRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled250 mg per capsule 6 capsules per day(i) Decreased pulse wave velocity
(ii) Increased adiponectin
(iii) Decreased leptin
(iv) Decreased HOMA-IR, triglyceride, uric acid, visceral, and total body fat
Takahashi et al. 2014 [191]Curcumin10Double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover90 mg-single and placebo  
180 mg-double
(i) Decreased reactive oxygen metabolites in both groups versus placebo
(ii) Increased biological antioxidant potential concentrations in both groups versus placebo
Bloomer et al. 2009 [194] Omega-3
(EPA : DHA)
146 wksRandom order double-blind crossover design studyEPA : DHA 2,224 : 2,208 mg·d−1, (i) Decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and TNF-α)
Tartibian et al. 2009 [195]Omega-3
(EPA : DHA)
27
(, control)
(, placebo)
(, EPA : DHA)
32 Randomized, double-blinded, repeated measures324 : 216 mg·d−1, 30 days and 48 hrs during recovery(i) Decreased perceived pain and ROM at 48 hours postexercise
Jouris et al. 2011 [196]Omega-3
(EPA : DHA)
117Repeated measures intervention2,000 : 1,000 mg·d−1 for 7 days(i) Decreased perceived muscle soreness, pain, and swelling.
Smith et al. 2011 [199]Omega-3
(EPA : DHA)
168 wksRandomized controlled studyEPA : DHA 1.86 : 1.50 g·d−1(i) Stimulating protein synthesis through activation of the mTOR-p70s6k signaling pathway in older adults

Endurance
Bailey et al. 2009 [218]Beet root juice86Double-blind, placebo- (PL-) controlled, crossover study0.5 liters of BRJ (5.5 mmol/day of )(i) Single dose BRJ lowered VO2 during submaximal exercise of 60% maximal work rate
(ii) BRJ significantly improved 16.1 km TT performance
Vanhatalo et al. 2010 [219]Beet root juice815Balanced crossover0.5 liters BRJ (5.2 mmol/day )(i) VO2 max, peak power output, and work rate associated with anaerobic threshold were higher than placebo and baseline after 15 days of BRJ
Lansley et al. 2011 [217]Beet root juice96Randomized, double-blind, crossover
design
0.5 liters of BRJ (6.2 mmol/day of )(i) Reduced the VO2 for constant-work-rate moderate and severe-intensity running by ~7%
(ii) Time to exhaustion was increased during severe-intensity running by ~15% and incremental knee-extension exercise by ~5%
Lansley et al. 2011 [216]Beet root juice9Randomized, crossover0.5 liter BRJ (6.2 mmol of )(i) Reduced time to completion and significantly increased power output during the 4 km TT (2.8% and 5%, resp.; P < 0.05)
(ii) Reduced time to completion and significantly increased power output during the 16 km TT (2.7% and 6%, resp.; P < 0.05)
Kenjale et al. 2011 [231]Beet root juice8Randomized, open-label, crossover study0.5 liters of BRJ (18.1 mmol/L )(i) Increased exercise tolerance (walked 18% longer before claudication pain onset and experienced a 17% longer peak walking time)
(ii) Decreased fractional O2 extraction (48% decrease in Hgb peak-curve amplitude)
Murphy et al. 2012 [226]Beet root juice11Double-blind placebo-controlled crossover200 g Beetroot with ≥500 mg (i) Nonsignificant improvement in running velocity
(ii) Running velocity was 5% faster during the last 1.1 miles (1.8 km) of the 5-km run
Hodgson et al. 2013 [137]Caffeine8Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover5 mg·kg−1(i) 4.9% reduction in cycling time until completion of 70% of maximal work output
(ii) Comparable results with coffee as the source of caffeine
Pitchford et al. 2014 [234]Caffeine9Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover3 mg·kg−1(i) Reduced cycling time to complete work-based time trial in hot conditions (P = 0.06)
Spence et al. 2013 [233]Caffeine10Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover200 mg(i) Reduction of cycling time during second half of 40 km time trial
(ii) Insignificant 1.3% reduction in total cycling time during 40 km time trial
Stadheim et al. 2013 [232]Caffeine10Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover6 mg·kg−1(i) 4% reduction in time to complete 8 km cross-country skiing double-poling time trial
(ii) Reduced rating of perceived exertion during 5 minute warm-up intervals at 40, 50, 60, and 70% of aerobic capacity
Stephens et al. 2008 [320]LMW
HMW
8100 g LMS, HMS, or P(i) Increased performance in LMS and HMS versus placebo
(ii) Increased performance in HMS versus LMS
Roberts et al. 2011 [322]HMS
MAT
9Crossover, randomized, double-blind 1 g/kg BM MS  
1 g/kg/MD
(i) Decreased glucose and insulin in HMS versus MAT
(ii) Increased fat breakdown in HMS versus MAT

Body composition
Ludy and Mattes 2011 [329]Capsaicin25Randomized, crossover1 g RP after high-FAT diet  
1 g RP after high-CHO diet  
0 after high-FAT diet  
0 after high-CHO diet
(i) Increased EE, core body temperature, and fat oxidation (in oral form)
(ii) Decreased energy intake in nonusers, but no in users
Yoneshiro et al. 2012 [337]Capsaicin18Single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover 9 mg capsinoids (capsules) with 199 mg of rapeseed oil and medium-chain triglycerides
0 (Placebo)
(i) Increased EE through activation of brown adipose tissue in humans
Galgani and Ravussin 2010 [345]Capsiate784 wksParallel-arm double blind, randomized3 mg·d−1 dihydrocapsiate (capsules)
9 mg·d−1 dihydrocapsiate (capsules)
0 (Placebo)
(i) Increased RMR when both groups 3 and 9 mg·d−1 were combined
Josse et al. 2010 [342]Capsiate12Randomized, crossover, double blind10 mg capsinoids (capsules)
0 (Placebo)
(i) Increased SNSa, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation
Lee et al. 2010 [344]Capsiate464 wks Parallel-arm double blind, randomized3 mg·d−1 dihydrocapsiate (capsules)
9 mg·d−1 dihydrocapsiate (capsules)
0 (Placebo)
(i) Increased energy expenditure 9 mg·d−1 and 3 mg·d−1 versus placebo and 9 mg·d−1 versus 3 mg·d−1
Snitker et al. 2009 [338]Capsiate8012 wksParallel-arm double blind, randomized6 mg·d−1 capsinoids (capsules)
0 (Placebo)
(i) Decreased abdominal adiposity
(ii) Tended to increase fat oxidation
Inoue et al. 2007 [343]Capsiate444 wksParallel-arm double blind, randomized3 mg·d−1 capsinoids (capsules)
10 mg·d−1 capsinoids (capsules)
0 (Placebo)
(i) Increased VO2 (10 mg, BMI ≥25 kg/m2)
Stephens et al. 2013 [348]Carnitine1212 wksRandomized, double-blind1.36 g L-carnitine + 80 g of CHO
80 g of CHO
(i) Increased muscle carnitine by 20%
(ii) Prevented an 18% increase in body fat mass found with the CHO group alone
(iii) Increased EE and fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise
Haub et al. 2010 [355]Resistant starch11Single-blind randomized, crossover30 g RS4XL
30 g RS2
30 g DEX
(i) Lower plasma glucose for RS4XL and RS2 than DEX, and for RS4XL than RS2
Al-Tamimi et al. 2010 [367]Resistant starch13Randomized, crossover75 g GLU
65 g of puffed wheat bar (PWB)
80 g of RS4X
(i) Lower glucose 20–60 min and insulin 30–120 min in RS4XL versus PWB and GLU
Shimotoyodome et al. 2011 [363]Resistant starch10Randomized, crossover 38 g RS4-HDP
38 g RS2-WMS
(i) Lower glucose and insulin, and GIP
(ii) Increased fat oxidation and EE

HMW: high molecular weight; LMW: low molecular weight; HMS: hydrothermally modified starch; MAT: maltodextrin.

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