Table 5: (a) Human and in vivo example nutrient inducers of UGT enzymes. (b) Selected dietary sources of D-glucaric acid.

EnzymeFood, beverage, or bioactive compounds
Food sources in italics
Type of studyDosages used and references

Cruciferous vegetablesClinicalApproximately 5 and 10 servings/d of cruciferous vegetables including frozen broccoli, cauliflower, fresh cabbage (red and green), and fresh radish sprouts [90]
250 g/d each of Brussel sprouts and broccoli [25]
2 oz (56.8 g) watercress three times daily [91]
Grapes, wine, peanuts, soy, and itadori tea [32]
Clinical1 g/d resveratrol [28]: note high dose used
CitrusObservational0.5+ servings/day of citrus fruits or foods [92]
Dandelion In vivo Free access to 2% dandelion tea solution [53]
Rooibos teaIn vivo Rooibos tea as sole beverage; concentration 2 g tea leaves/100 mL water steeped for 30 minutes [93]
UGTsHoneybush teaIn vivo Honeybush tea as sole beverage; concentration 4 g tea leaves/100 mL water steeped for 30 minutes [93]
RosemaryIn vivo Diet of 0.5% rosemary extract [37]
SoyIn vivo 150 and 500 mg/kg soy extract [94]
Ellagic acid 
Berries, pomegranate, grapes, walnuts, and blackcurrants [42]
In vivo Diet of 1% ellagic acid [95]
Ferulic acid 
Whole grains, roasted coffee, tomatoes, asparagus, olives, berries, peas, vegetables, and citrus [96]
In vivo Diet of 1% ferulic acid [95]
Turmeric, curry powder [34]
In vivo Diet of 1% curcumin [95]
Algae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, and crayfish [38]
In vivo Diets of 0.001–0.03% astaxanthin for 15 days [39]


Legumes Mung bean seeds, adzuki bean sprouts [97]

Vegetables and fruits Oranges, spinach, apples, carrots, alfalfa sprouts, cabbage, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, grapefruit, grapes, peaches, plums, lemons, apricots, sweet cherries, corn, cucumber, lettuce, celery, green pepper, tomato, and potatoes [9799]