Table 7: (a) In vivo example nutrient inducers of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). (b) In vivo example nutrient inhibitors of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). (c) Selected dietary sources of nutrients for glutathione support ([111] unless otherwise noted).
(a)

EnzymeFood, beverage, or bioactive compounds
Food sources in italics
Type of studyDosages used and references

Cruciferous vegetablesClinical, observationalApproximately 5 and 10 servings/d of cruciferous vegetables including frozen broccoli, cauliflower, fresh cabbage (red and green), and fresh radish sprouts [114] 
>31.2 g/d cruciferous vegetables [115] 
4.5 cups of cruciferous vegetables/d, including 0.5 cups of radish sprouts, 1 cup of frozen cauliflower, 2 cups of frozen broccoli, and 1 cup of fresh cabbage [116] 
300 g/d cooked Brussels sprouts [117]
Allium vegetablesClinical3 tbsp fresh chives, 1.33 cups of fresh leeks, 1 tsp garlic, and 0.5 cups of fresh onion [116]
Resveratrol 
Grapes, wine, peanuts, soy, and itadori tea
[32]
Clinical1 g/d resveratrol [28]: note high dose used
CitrusObservational, in vivo >76 g/d citrus [115] 
20 mg limonoid mixture every 2 days [124]
Garlic In vivo 30 to 200 mg/kg garlic oil [36] 
80 and 200 mg/kg garlic oil 3 times weekly [70]
GSTsFish oilIn vivo 20.5 g/kg fish oil [36]: note high dose used
Black soybeanIn vivo 1 g/kg black soybean seed coat extract [44]
Purple sweet potatoIn vivo 100 and 200 mg/kg anthocyanin extract from purple sweet potato [118]
CurcuminIn vivo Diet of 2% curcumin [119]
Green teaIn vivo Equivalent of 4 cups/d (200 mL each) of green tea [120]
Rooibos teaIn vivo Rooibos tea as sole beverage; concentration 2 g tea leaves/100 mL water steeped for 30 minutes [93]
Honeybush teaIn vivo Honeybush tea as sole beverage; concentration 4 g tea leaves/100 mL water steeped for 30 minutes [93]
Ellagic acid 
Berries, pomegranate, grapes, walnuts, and blackcurrants [42]
In vivo 30 mg/kg/d ellagic acid [43]
RosemaryIn vivo 20 mg/kg carnosic acid 3 times weekly 
[121]
Ghee (clarified butter)In vivo 19.5 mg CLA (conjugated linoleic acid)/g fat [122]
Genistein (kidney GSTs) 
Fermented soy (e.g., miso, tempeh) contains up to 40% bioavailable genistein versus 1% or less in other soy products [125]
In vivo 1.5 g/kg genistein [123]: note high dose used

(b)

EnzymeFood, beverage, or bioactive compounds
Food sources in italics
Type of studyDosages used and references

Apiaceous vegetablesClinical 1 tsp fresh dill weed, 0.5 cups of fresh celery, 3 tbsp. fresh parsley, 1.25 cups of grated parsnips, and 0.75 cups of frozen carrots [116]
GSTsQuercetin 
Apple, apricot, blueberries, yellow onion, kale,  and alfalfa sprouts, green beans, broccoli, black tea, and  chili powder [47, 48]
In vivo 2 g/kg quercetin [126]: note high dose used
Genistein (liver GSTs) 
Fermented soy (e.g., miso, tempeh) containsup to 40% bioavailable genistein, versus 1% or less in other soy products [125]
In vivo 1.5 g/kg genistein [123]: note high dose used

(c)

Vitamin B6 Turkey, pork, chicken, beef, amaranth, lentils, pistachio nuts, sunflower seeds, garlic, and prunes

Magnesium Nuts, seeds, beans, and whole grains

Selenium Brazil nuts, pork, turkey, lamb, chicken, and egg

Methionine Turkey, pork, chicken, beef, egg, Brazil nuts, soybean, sesame seeds, and spirulina

Cystine Pork, turkey, chicken, egg, soybean, spirulina, sesame seeds, and oats

Glycine Turkey, pork, chicken, amaranth, soybean, peanuts, pumpkin seed, and beef

Folate (dietary form of folic acid)Mung bean, adzuki bean, and other legumes, liver, sunflower seeds, quinoa, spinach, asparagus, avocados, mustard greens, and artichokes

Alpha-lipoic acid Spinach, broccoli, tomato, peas, Brussels sprouts, and visceral meats [127, 128]

Functional foods Turmeric, milk thistle, cruciferous vegetables, and artichoke [129133]