Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2016, Article ID 8468594, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8468594
Clinical Study

Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7–9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco

1Joint Unit of Nutrition and Food Research (URAC39), CNESTEN-Ibn Tofaïl University, Regional Designated Center for Nutrition (AFRA/IAEA), 14000 Kenitra, Morocco
2Ministry of Health, Rabat, Morocco
3Équipe de Recherche en Santé et Nutrition du Couple Mère Enfant, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Rabat, Morocco

Received 25 December 2015; Accepted 21 February 2016

Academic Editor: Aziz Hichami

Copyright © 2016 Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. B. Zimmermann, P. L. Jooste, and C. S. Pandav, “Iodine-deficiency disorders,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9645, pp. 1251–1262, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. M. Black, “Micronutrient deficiencies and cognitive functioning,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 11, pp. 3927S–3931S, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Delange, “Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 77, no. 906, pp. 217–220, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Bleichrodt and M. P. Born, “A meta-analysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development,” in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency, pp. 195–200, Cognizant Communication, New York, NY, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  5. N. Chaouki, “Enquête sur le goitre par carence iodée au Maroc,” Bulletin Epidémiologique du Maroc, no. 7, pp. 1–7, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. Chaouki, S. Ottmani, A. Saad et al., “The prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in children 6–12yrs old in Morocco,” Bulletin Epidémiologique du Maroc, vol. 1, pp. 2–23, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. M. Grantham-McGregor and C. C. Ani, “The role of micronutrients in psychomotor and cognitive development,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 511–527, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Bleichrodt, P. J. D. Drenth, and A. Querido, “Effects of iodine deficiency on mental and psychomotor abilities,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 55–67, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. E. Zahrou, I. El Menchawy, K. Benjeddou et al., “Efficacy study of iodine fortification of milk on iodine status markers: a longitudinal interventional, controlled study among schoolchildren in Morocco,” International Journal of New Technology and Research, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 17–24, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Serdula, “Maximizing the impact of flour fortification to improve vitamin and mineral nutrition in populations,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 1, supplement, pp. S86–S93, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Taljaard, N. M. Covic, A. E. van Graan et al., “Effects of a multi-micronutrient-fortified beverage, with and without sugar, on growth and cognition in South African schoolchildren: a randomised, double-blind, controlled intervention,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 12, pp. 2271–2284, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. S. Solon, J. N. Sarol Jr., A. B. I. Bernardo et al., “Effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified fruit powder beverage on the nutrition status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren in the Philippines,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 24, supplement 2, pp. S129–S140, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. B. Zimmermann, R. Wegmueller, C. Zeder et al., “Dual fortification of salt with iodine and micronized ferric pyrophosphate: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 952–959, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. G. Lohman, A. F. Roche, and R. Martorell, Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill, USA, 1988.
  15. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group, WHO Child Growth Standards: 406 Length/Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age, Weight-for-Length, Weight-for-Height and Body 407 Mass Index-for-Age: Methods and Development, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2006, http://www.who.int/growthref/en/.
  16. J. C. Raven, J. H. Court, and J. Raven, Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales, Lewis, London, UK, 1977.
  17. R. J. Sternberg and E. L. Grigorenko, Dynamic Testing, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  18. WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD, Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Monitoring their Elimination: A Guide for Programme Managers, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 3rd edition, 2007, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43781/1/9789241595827_eng.pdf.
  19. J. T. Dunn, H. E. Crutchfield, R. Gutekunst et al., Methods for Measuring Iodine in Urine, International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1993.
  20. B. De Benoist, E. McLean, M. Anderson, and L. Rogers, “Iodine deficiency in 2007: global progress since 2003,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 195–202, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Kadiri, A. Chraibi, M. H. Gharbi et al., “The endemic goiter. A pilot investigation in Morocco,” Revue Française d'Endocrinologie Clinique Nutrition et Métabolisme, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 651–655, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  22. Ministère de la Santé, Enquête Nationale sur la Population et la Santé Familiale, 2011, http://www.sante.gov.ma/Publications/Etudes_enquete/Documents/Indicateurs%20regionaux_ENPSF-2011.pdf.
  23. C. Best, N. Neufingerl, J. M. Del Rosso, C. Transler, T. van den Briel, and S. Osendarp, “Can multi-micronutrient food fortification improve the micronutrient status, growth, health, and cognition of schoolchildren? A systematic review,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 186–204, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. E. van Stuijvenberg, J. D. Kvalsvig, M. Faber, M. Kruger, D. G. Kenoyer, and A. J. Spinnler Benadé, “Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 497–503, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. B. Stanbury, The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency, Cognizant Communication Corporation, Elmsford, NY, USA, 1994.
  26. Y. Aboussaleh, A.-O.-T. Ahami, F. Bonthoux, C. Marendaz, S. Valdois, and S. Rusinek, “Performances cognitives des enfants anémiques âgés de 6 à 11 ans en milieu urbain du nord-ouest Marocain,” Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 49–54, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. El Azmy, A. O. T. Ahami, B. Badda et al., “Evaluation of the neurocognitive performances of the high school student of M'Rirt (Middle Atlas, Morocco),” Antropo, vol. 30, pp. 33–43, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. H. Dussault and J. Ruel, “Thyroid hormones and brain development,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 49, pp. 321–334, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Isaacs and J. Oates, “Nutrition and cognition: assessing cognitive abilities in children and young people,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Bleichrodt and W. Resing, “Measuring intelligence and learning potential in iodine-deficient and noniodine deficient populations,” in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency, J. B. Stanbury, Ed., pp. 27–36, Cognizant Communication Corporation, Elmsford, NY, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  31. S. N. Huda, S. M. Grantham-McGregor, K. M. Rahman, and A. Tomkins, “Biochemical hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is associated with poor school achievement and cognition in Bangladeshi children,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 980–987, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. B. Zimmermann, K. Connolly, M. Bozo, J. Bridson, F. Rohner, and L. Grimci, “Iodine supplementation improves cognition in iodine-deficient schoolchildren in Albania: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 108–114, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. C. Gordon, M. C. Rose, S. A. Skeaff, A. R. Gray, K. M. D. Morgan, and T. Ruffman, “Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1264–1271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. S. V. Amarra, D. C. Bongga, L. Peñano-Ho, F. B. Cruz, J. S. Solis, and E. B. Barrios, “Effect of iodine status and other nutritional factors on psychomotor and cognitive performance of Filipino schoolchildren,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. C. Fernald, “Iodine deficiency and mental development in children,” in Nutrition, Health, and Child Development. Research Advances and PolicyRecommendations, S. M. Grantham-McGregor, Ed., Scientific Publication no. 566, pp. 234–255, Pan American Health Organisation, The World bank, and Tropical Metabolism Research Unit University of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  36. N. Bleichrodt and W. C. M. Resing, “Measuring intelligence and learning potential in iodine deficient and noniodine deficient populations,” in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency, J. B. Stanbury, Ed., pp. 37–42, Cognizant Communication Corporation, Elmsford, NY, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  37. B. S. Hetzel, The Story of Iodine Deficiency, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1989.