Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2017 / Article / Tab 5

Clinical Study

Metabolomic Insights into the Nutritional Status of Adults and Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Consuming a Low-Phenylalanine Diet in Combination with Amino Acid and Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods

Table 5

Treatment comparison of mineral intake distributions in comparison with reference intake cutoffs with AA-MF and GMP-MF1.

MineralsAA-MFGMP-MF
nPercentile nutrient intakesInadequate and excessive intakes2Percentile nutrient intakesInadequate and excessive intakes
10thMedian90th<EAR or AI>UL10thMedian90th<EAR or AI>UL

Calcium, mg308391468240210%0%5861529245320%7%1.00
 Calcium from MF301061103207763115322250.99
 Calcium from MF3275521151212960125523910.62
 Calcium from NF43018331378493%15640172690%0.80
Copper, µg301.21.94.23%7%0.61.52.713%0%0.0006
 Copper from MF3001.23.000.61.10.005
 Copper from MF210.61.22.80.40.71.10.0001
 Copper from NF300.50.93.433%0.40.81.940%0.27
Iodine, µg301314023523%0%1215326233%0%0.66
 Iodine from MF30013222301412390.48
 Iodine from MF2177137223781492410.32
 Iodine from NF30294293%084897%0.26
Iron, mg301425430%3%923313%0%0.02
 Iron from MF3001531014230.14
 Iron from MF21101631814230.02
 Iron from NF30582237%481733%0.15
Magnesium, mg3028150174613%19651478223%0.78
 Magnesium from MF303232057037%4135357853%0.77
 Magnesium from MF27126321570383546000.80
 Magnesium from NF3011017132090%7716529287%0.41
Manganese, mg301.93.97.110%0%1.83.85.313%3%0.26
 Manganese from MF3001.63.401.63.00.84
 Manganese from MF210.91.73.40.61.93.10.41
 Manganese from NF301.12.26.340%0.91.93.750%0.10
Phosphorus, mg30952161624317%0%7741536220410%0%0.60
 Phosphorus from MF3081972203625396517080.71
 Phosphorus from MF275311032204724098418000.26
 Phosphorus from NF30329526100773%259538106467%0.80
Potassium, mg3018092810417993%ND520143350454093%ND0.15
 Potassium from MF3006002558718114617810.08
 Potassium from MF25608802673680112018150.46
 Potassium from NF309381910301197%107718673204100%1.00
Selenium, µg3054931337%0%258814217%0%0.50
 Selenium from MF3095889055890.34
 Selenium from MF232659892960930.31
 Selenium from NF3012298883%82710373%0.95
Sodium, mg301816263738797%63%2052326146457%83%0.048
 Sodium from MF300413117558011402040<0.0001
 Sodium from MF25175831198480112322800.0003
 Sodium from NF3013632206313817%10072041338323%0.69
Zinc, mg305164113%13%5133120%10%0.12
 Zinc from MF300123009170.05
 Zinc from MF2161228610170.14
 Zinc from NF30341777%241983%0.64

1Nutrient intakes were based on 3-day food records (n = 30); statistical analysis included ANOVA with effects for treatment, genotype (classical or variant PKU), and treatment-genotype interaction. The values in this table represent the treatment comparison; 2United States’ Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) cutoffs, based on the AMDR, EAR, AI, and UL, were compared to nutrient intakes per the sex and age of each individual subject [25, 26]; 3sub-analyses for micronutrient intakes from medical foods were conducted due to the high rates of use of AA-MF that lacked micronutrient mineral supplementation. These subanalyses aimed to compare micronutrient intakes from medical foods that were supplemented with micronutrients. Due to the diverse micronutrient supplementation profiles of medical foods, sample sizes for each micronutrient vary; 4natural foods were defined as all foods and beverages that were not medical foods intended for the treatment of PKU; 5per the DRI, a UL for select nutrients has not been determined due to a lack of scientific evidence; Kruskal–Wallis test was used when data were skewed; AMDR, acceptable macronutrient distribution range; AI, adequate intake; AA-MF, amino acid medical food; DFE, dietary folate equivalents; DGA, Dietary Guidelines for Americans; EAR, estimated average requirement; GMP-MF, glycomacropeptide medical food; MF, medical food; ND, not determined; NF, natural food; PKU, phenylketonuria; UL, upper tolerable intake levels.

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