Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Nutritional Ketosis and Mitohormesis: Potential Implications for Mitochondrial Function and Human Health

Table 1

Bioenergetic proteins upregulated by ketogenic or low-carbohydrate diets.

Oxidative phosphorylation
 NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)[162]
 Succinate dehydrogenase (complex II)[87, 149, 162, 164, 165]
 Cytochrome c reductase (complex III)[162]
 Cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV)[87, 149, 162]
 ATP synthase (complex V)[87, 162]
 Cytochrome c[149, 162]
Citric acid cycle
 Citrate synthase[156, 166]
 Isocitrate dehydrogenase[162]
 Succinate dehydrogenase (complex II)[87, 149, 162, 164, 165]
 Malate dehydrogenase[162, 165]
Fatty acid oxidation
 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase[36, 37, 87, 152, 167169]
 Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)[36, 87, 148, 170]
 Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD)[87, 148, 151]
 Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD)[87]
β-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD)[148, 150152, 156, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171173]
Ketolysis
β-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase[148, 150, 151]

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