Review Article

Potential Synergies of β-Hydroxybutyrate and Butyrate on the Modulation of Metabolism, Inflammation, Cognition, and General Health

Table 1

Summary of the health benefits of Butyrate that has been reported through scientific research conducted on in vitro and in vivo models including human subjects.

Health benefitsResearch modelReference

Induces GLP-1 secretionIntestinal L cells[104]
Stimulates neurogenesisRat[105]
Antidepressant effectRat[106]
Obesity managementMouse[107, 113]
Better insulin sensitivityMouse[108]
Improves cardiac health with lower cholesterol productionHuman cell line, human[111, 112]
Improves gut lining integrityHuman epithelial cell[115]
Neuroprotection and improved memory recall in Alzheimer’s diseaseMouse[117]
Provides improved long-term inflammatory control, including Crohn’s diseaseMouse, human[120, 121]
Reduces propionic acid-producing microbesRat[126]
Maintains healthy peristalsisHuman[132, 133]
Stimulates fatty acid β-oxidation by inducing FGF21Human[135, 136]