Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2018, Article ID 9812806, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9812806
Research Article

Effect of a Sodium and Calcium DL-β-Hydroxybutyrate Salt in Healthy Adults

1Department of Food, Nutrition, and Facilities, FH Münster-University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Corrensstraße 25, 48149 Muenster, Germany
2Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149 Muenster, Germany
3Center of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149 Muenster, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Tobias Fischer; ed.retsneum-hf@rehcsif.saibot

Received 8 December 2017; Revised 1 February 2018; Accepted 12 February 2018; Published 12 April 2018

Academic Editor: José María Huerta

Copyright © 2018 Tobias Fischer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. F. Cahill, “Fuel metabolism in starvation,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. B. Carey, “Mechanisms regulating adipocyte lipolysis,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 441, pp. 157–170, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Guzmán and M. J. Geelen, “Regulation of fatty acid oxidation in mammalian liver,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1167, no. 3, pp. 227–241, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. D. McGarry, K. F. Woeltje, M. Kuwajima et al., “Regulation of ketogenesis and the renaissance of carnitine palmitoyltransferase,” Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 271–284, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. A. Zammit, “Mechanisms of regulation of the partition of fatty acids between oxidation and esterification in the liver,” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 39–67, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. A. Mitchell, S. Kassovska-Bratinova, Y. Boukaftane et al., “Medical aspects of ketone body metabolism,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 193–216, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  7. G. A. Reichard, O. E. Owen, A. C. Haff et al., “Ketone-body production and oxidation in fasting obese humans,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 508–515, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. F. Cahill, “Starvation in man,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 282, no. 12, pp. 668–675, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. F. Féry and E. O. Balasse, “Ketone body production and disposal in diabetic ketosis. A comparison with fasting ketosis,” Diabetes, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 326–332, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. G. F. Cahill and R. L. Veech, “Ketoacids? Good medicine?” Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, vol. 114, pp. 149–163, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. L. Veech, B. Chance, Y. Kashiwaya et al., “Ketone bodies, potential therapeutic uses,” IUBMB Life, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 241–247, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  12. R. M. Wilder and M. D. Winter, “The threshold of ketogenesis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 52, pp. 393–401, 1922. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. H. Koeslag, T. D. Noakes, and A. W. Sloan, “Post-exercise ketosis,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, pp. 79–90, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. B. Vanitallie and T. H. Nufert, “Ketones: metabolism’s ugly duckling,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 327–341, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. J. Sharman, W. J. Kraemer, D. M. Love et al., “A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 1879–1885, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A. F. Luat, L. Coyle, and D. Kamat, “The ketogenic diet: a practical guide for pediatricians,” Pediatric Annals, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. e446–e450, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. Ye, X.-J. Li, W.-L. Jiang et al., “Efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Neurology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. E. Payne, J. H. Cross, J. W. Sander et al., “The ketogenic and related diets in adolescents and adults–a review,” Epilepsia, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1941–1948, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. B. Bueno, I. S. V. de Melo, S. L. de Oliveira et al., “Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 1178–1187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Paoli, A. Rubini, J. S. Volek et al., “Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 789–796, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. M. Bravata, L. Sanders, J. Huang et al., “Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review,” JAMA, vol. 289, no. 14, pp. 1837–1850, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. van der Louw, D. van den Hurk, E. Neal et al., “Ketogenic diet guidelines for infants with refractory epilepsy,” European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 798–809, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Gordon, “Glutaric aciduria types I and II,” Brain and Development, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 136–140, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. L. K. van Hove, S. Grünewald, J. Jaeken et al., “D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate treatment of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD),” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9367, pp. 1433–1435, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Plecko, S. Stoeckler-Ipsiroglu, E. Schober et al., “Oral beta-hydroxybutyrate supplementation in two patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia: monitoring of beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and in the brain by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” Pediatric Research, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 301–306, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. R. L. Veech, “Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2004–2006, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Shem, P. Daniel, L. Paul et al., “Oral β-hydroxybutyrate salt fails to improve 4-minute cycling performance following submaximal exercise,” Journal of Science and Cycling, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  28. T. O’Malley, E. Myette-Cote, C. Durrer et al., “Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1031–1035, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  29. S. A. Hashim and T. B. VanItallie, “Ketone body therapy: from the ketogenic diet to the oral administration of ketone ester,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1818–1826, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. L. Veech, “The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism,” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 309–319, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. E. Johnson, F. Sargent, and R. Passmore, “Normal variations in total ketone bodies in serum and urine of healthy young men,” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology and Cognate Medical Sciences, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 339–344, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. E. Hall, M. E. Wastney, T. M. Bolton et al., “Ketone body kinetics in humans: the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, and starvation,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1184–1194, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Gautschi, C. Weisstanner, J. Slotboom et al., “Highly efficient ketone body treatment in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency-related leukodystrophy,” Pediatric Research, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 91–98, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. J. van Rijt, M. R. Heiner-Fokkema, G. J. du Marchie Sarvaas et al., “Favorable outcome after physiologic dose of sodium-D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate in severe MADD,” Pediatrics, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. e1224–e1228, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Clarke, K. Tchabanenko, R. Pawlosky et al., “Kinetics, safety and tolerability of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate in healthy adult subjects,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 401–408, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. J. Cox, T. Kirk, T. Ashmore et al., “Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 256–268, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. J. Stubbs, P. J. Cox, R. D. Evans et al., “On the metabolism of exogenous ketones in humans,” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 8, p. 137, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Desrochers, P. Dubreuil, J. Brunet et al., “Metabolism of (R,S)-1,3-butanediol acetoacetate esters, potential parenteral and enteral nutrients in conscious pigs,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 268, no. 4, pp. E660–E667, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. R. L. Tate, M. A. Mehlman, and R. B. Tobin, “Metabolic fate of 1,3-butanediol in the rat: conversion to -hydroxybutyrate,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 1719–1726, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. A. Puchowicz, C. L. Smith, C. Bomont et al., “Dog model of therapeutic ketosis induced by oral administration of R,S-1,3-butanediol diacetoacetate,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 281–287, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. C. Lincoln, C. Des Rosiers, and H. Brunengraber, “Metabolism of S-3-hydroxybutyrate in the perfused rat liver,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 259, no. 1, pp. 149–156, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Desrochers, F. David, M. Garneau et al., “Metabolism of R- and S-1,3-butanediol in perfused livers from meal-fed and starved rats,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 285, no. 2, pp. 647–653, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, National Academies Press; Oxford Publicity Partnership Distributor, Washington, DC, USA, 2004.
  44. A. C. Ross, Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Vitamin D, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2011.
  45. WHO, Guideline: Sodium Intake for Adults and Children, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.
  46. F. P. Cappuccio, “Cardiovascular and other effects of salt consumption,” Kidney International Supplements, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 312–315, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. P. Cappuccio, R. Kalaitzidis, S. Duneclift et al., “Unravelling the links between calcium excretion, salt intake, hypertension, kidney stones and bone metabolism,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 169–177, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  48. M. Cirillo, M. Laurenzi, W. Panarelli et al., “Urinary sodium to potassium ratio and urinary stone disease,” Kidney International, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1133–1139, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. R. Lewis, K. Zhu, and R. L. Prince, “Adverse events from calcium supplementation: relationship to errors in myocardial infarction self-reporting in randomized controlled trials of calcium supplementation,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 27, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. R. Reid, S. M. Bristow, and M. J. Bolland, “Calcium supplements: benefits and risks,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 278, no. 4, pp. 354–368, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. E. Corey, “Stewart and beyond: new models of acid-base balance,” Kidney International, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 777–787, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. A. Stewart, “Modern quantitative acid-base chemistry,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1444–1461, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. Féry and E. O. Balasse, “Effect of exercise on the disposal of infused ketone bodies in humans,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 245–250, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Laeger, C. C. Metges, and B. Kuhla, “Role of beta-hydroxybutyric acid in the central regulation of energy balance,” Appetite, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 450–455, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus