Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Dietary Iron Intake in Pregnant Women in Europe: A Review of 24 Studies from 14 Countries in the Period 1991–2014

Table 1

Dietary iron intake in pregnant women in European countries.

Country (city or region)Study periodWomen (n)Age (years) mean ± SD and/or rangeTrimesterDietary methodDietary iron mg/dayRecommended iron intake at time of study mg/dayIron intake below recommended % of womenReference
Mean ± SD2MedianIQ3 range, CI4, percentiles5

Bosnia (Canton Una Sana)∼2014∼4025.6 ± 1.7Not stated24-hour recall8.6RDA 27100% had intake <RDA[16]
Croatia (Osijek)2010–2011222Not stated1st24-hour recall9.57.5–12.43DRI 27100% had intake <DRI[17]
Croatia (Osijek)2010–2011222Not stated2nd24-hour recall10.17.8–13.33DRI 27100% had intake <DRI[17]
Croatia (Osijek)2010–2011222Not stated3rd24-hour recall11.28.7–14.6DRI 27100% had intake <DRI[17]
Czech Republic (Hradec Kralove Region)2009–201015228.9 ± 3.61st7-day food diary14.0 ± 3.5RDA 2752% had intake <RDA[18]
Czech Republic (Hradec Kralove Region)2009–2010152∼28.9 ± 3.62nd7-day food diary15.3 ± 3.5RDA 2757% had intake <RDA[18]
Czech Republic (Hradec Kralove Region)2009–2010152∼28.9 ± 3.63rd7-day food diary16.3 ± 3.5RDA 2760% had intake <RDA[18]
Finland (Oulu)1995–199611329.6 ± 5.13rdFFQ116.5 ± 4.5RDA 157[19]
Finland (Oulu)1995–199611329.6 ± 5.13rd5-day food diary × 212 ± 4RDA 157[19]
Finland (Oulu)1995–199611829.6 ± 5.13rd5-day food diary × 211.49.6–12.93RDA 157[20]
Finland (Oulu & Tampere)1998–199979729.6 ± 5.11st & 2nd & 3rdFFQ118 ± 6RDA 157[21]
Germany (Hamburg)2011–2013200 (95% caucasian)31 ± 3.51st24-hour recall12 ± 4RDA 30100% had intake <RDA[22]
Germany (Hamburg)2011–2013200 (95% caucasian)∼31 ± 3.52nd24-hour recall13 ± 3RDA 30100% had intake <RDA[22]
Germany (Hamburg)2011–2013200 (95% caucasian)∼31 ± 3.53rd24-hour recall12 ± 3RDA 30100% had intake <RDA[22]
Germany (Hamburg)2011–2013200 (95% caucasian)∼31 ± 3.51st & 2nd & 3rd24-hour recall12 ± 2RDA 30100% had intake <RDA[22]
Greece (Pireus)20039818–402ndFFQ11.6 ± 5.010.6–12.64DRI 30 (27)see text100% had intake <DRI[23]
Greece (Pireus)200310218–403rdFFQ11.9 ± 4.911.0–12.94DRI 30 (27)see text100% had intake <DRI[23]
Greece (Athens)20125618–421st & 2nd24-hour recall × 3∼15.4 ± 6.4DRI 2798% had intake <DRI[24]
Hungary (Budapest)1990–19947022.9 ± 4.4 (19–38)1st, 2nd & 3rdFFQ11.3 ± 4.1RDA 2081% had intake <70% of RDA[25]
Ireland (Dublin)201340230.8 ± 5.21stFFQ19.3 ± 10.317.0RDA 1437% had intake <RDA[26]
Norway (Nationwide MoBa study)2002–20057,455 nonsupplement users29.2 ± 4.82ndFFQ10.8 ± 3.410.36.1–17.15RDA 157[27]
Norway (Nationwide MoBa Study)2002–200532,653 supplement users29.2 ± 4.82ndFFQ11.3 ± 3.410.96.6–17.65RDA 157[27]
Norway (Oslo Region)2003–200411931.2 ± 4.1 (23–44)2ndFFQ117–195RDA 157[28]
Norway (Oslo Region)2003–200411931.2 ± 4.1 (23–44)2nd4-day weighed food diary107–155RDA 157[28]
Poland (Nationwide)200951220–353rd7-day food diary10.1RDA 24∼100% had intake <RDA[29]
Portugal (Porto)2004–200524929.2 ± 6.6 (18–40)3rdFFQ16.012.5–19.23AR 2288% had intake <AR[30]
Portugal (Porto)2004–200570∼29.8 ± 4.93rdFFQ × 216.2 ± 5.5[31]
Portugal (Porto)2004–200510129.8 ± 4.91st3-day food diary14.4 ± 4.8[31]
Portugal (Porto)2004–2005101∼29.8 ± 4.92nd3 days food diary14.3 ± 4.9[31]
Portugal (Porto)2004–2005101∼29.8 ± 4.93rd3-day food diary14.3 ± 5.0[31]
Portugal (Porto)2004–2005101∼29.8 ± 4.91st & 2nd & 3rd3-day food diary14.4 ± 3.7[31]
Spain (Reus)1991–19958024–35Preconception ≤12 weeks7-day food diary8.3 ± 3.0RDA 18∼98% had intake <RDA[32]
Spain (Reus)1991–19958024–351st7-day food diary∼8.1 ± 2.1RDA 18∼98% had intake <RDA[32]
Spain (Reus)1991–19958024–353rd7-day food diary∼8.5 ± 2.8RDA 18∼98% had intake <RDA[32]
Spain (Reus)1991–19958024–35Postpartum 6 weeks7-day food diary8.2 ± 2.3RDA 18∼98% had intake <RDA[32]
Spain (INMA-Valencia)2004–2005822∼17–401stFFQ20.7 ± 3.420.415.6–27.05AR 22 DRI 2768% had intake <DRI[33]
Sweden (Umeå)2006–200920923–401stFFQ∼13.1∼12.5–13.84RDA 15798% had intake <RDA[34]
UK (south West England) (ALSPAC)1991–199211,92327.9 ± 5.0 (15–44)3rdFFQ10.4 ± 3.310.25.4–16.25RNI 14.8∼75% had intake <RNI[35]
UK (Southampton)1991–1992569 caucasians26.4 ± 4.81stFFQ15.012.2–18.63RNI 14.8[36]
UK (Southampton)1991–1992569 causasians26.4 ± 4.81st4-day food diary10.17.9–12.43RNI 14.8[36]
UK (London)200242 caucasians33.2 ± 4.6 (19–40)1st4–7 day weighed food diary12.3 ± 4.6RNI 14.871% had intake <RNI[37]
UK (London)200242 caucasians∼33.2 ± 4.6 (19–40)2nd4–7 day weighed food diary12.1 ± 3.5RNI 14.879% had intake <RNI[37]
UK (London)200242 caucasians∼33.2 ± 4.6 (19–40)3rd4–7 day weighed food diary13.0 ± 5.3RNI 14.867% had intake <RNI[37]
UK (London)200242 caucasians∼33.2 ± 4.6 (19–40)Postpartum4–7 day weighed food diary12.3 ± 4.5RNI 14.881% had intake <RNI[37]
UK (Sheffield)2003–2004123 caucasians29 ± 6.4 (17–43)1stFFQ11.2 ± 3.94.7–21.16RNI 14.8[38]
UK (Sheffield)2003–2004123 caucasians29 ± 6.4 (17–43)1st24-hour recall × 28.0 ± 2.82.6–17.86RNI 14.8[38]
UK (Leeds)2003–20061,25718–451st24-hour recall11.5 ± 5.3RNI 14.880% had intake <RNI[39]

1FFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire; 2SD = standard deviation; 3IQ range = interquartile range, 25–75 percentiles; 4CI = 95% confidence interval; 55–95 percentile range; 6observed range; 7RDA for women of reproductive age. No specific recommendation for pregnant women; they are recommended oral iron supplements. AR = Estimated Average Requirement; daily intake levels estimated to meet the needs of half of the healthy pregnant women. DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (USA). RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance; daily intake adequate to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy pregnant women. RNI = Reference Nutrient Intake; daily intake adequate to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97.5%) healthy pregnant women.