Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2020 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Dietary Intake across Reproductive Life Stages of Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Survey from 4 Districts of India

Table 4

Association of sociodemographic characteristics and cooking practices with the median intakes of nutrients among women and girls (n = 1687).

Sociodemographic parametersEnergy (kcal)Fats (g)Proteins (g)Iron (mg)Vitamin C (mg)Zinc (mg)Calcium (mg)Folic acid total (mcg)

Residential areaβ
 Rural1507.434.134.134.134.134.134.134.1
 Urban slums1330.31330.31330.31330.31330.31330.31330.31330.3

Districts
 Sri Ganganagar1324.838.336.412.530.54.6500.9115
 Patna140122.736.755.816.14.9209.682.2
 West Delhi1292.422.238.912.2455.6308.3107.4
 Bangalore1760.727.239.910.4716.416975.9

Educational status of the women or girlsǁ
 Primary or below1438.726.637.111.5445.7270.894
 Middle school135029.536.510.835.4531999.5
 High school1415.825.639.210.638.75.2282.4100.9
 College and above1517.932.842.711.8355.3415.3116.2

Occupational status of the women or girls§
 Unskilled labour1291.926.935.211.532.64.8318.6100
 Semiskilled work1164.622.835.311.421.85289.692
 Skilled work1260.330.139.611.126.44.2373.9122.3
 Housewife1428.228.238.611.340.55.4301.4100.5
 Students139025.435.59.9435.3243.890.9

Social class of the family
 Scheduled tribe1478.422.936.17.927.55.4185.484.5
 OBC1496.929.339.710.7405.3273.895
 Scheduled caste1377.928.236.610.835.95.1299.798.7
 General class1343.52439.612.547.65.7316110

Socioeconomic status of women
 Lower1326.927.934.610.326.45.1314.994.5
 Upper lower1391.028.137.210.837.95.2288.397.5
 Lower middle1402.325.640.112.044.65.5302.3101.9
 Upper middle1709.841.343.913.058.56.2481.2118.2
 Type of familya
 Nuclear1397.61397.61397.61397.61397.61397.61397.61397.6
 Extension or joint1411.21411.21411.21411.21411.21411.21411.21411.2

Registered at Anganwadi (ICDS) Centre¶¶
 Yes139129.63912435.3364.4102
 No141126.63710.5375.3271.696

Cooking fuel§§
 Solid (cow dung or firewood)149032.337.511.744.45.3338.899.7
 Liquid (kerosene)146322.6365.721.44.4222.879.3
 Gas (Biogas/LPG)136825.338.410.737.25.3282.4100

Cooking utensilsǁǁ
 Iron128527.239.51344.85.6353.3112.1
 Other metals (copper/aluminium)153524.239.710.444.45.8236.591.5
 Stainless steel133031.135.911.431.95375.6104.4

ICDS, Integrated Child Development Service Scheme; LPG, liquefied petroleum gas; INR, Indian rupees; g, gram; mg, milligram; mcg, microgram; kcal, kilocalories. Data include medians for nutrient intakes and values for trends. aSignificant differences were found using Mann–Whitney U test for the nutrients () including fats, calcium, iron, and folic acid. βSignificant differences were found using Mann–Whitney U test for the energy and the nutrients () including fats, calcium, iron, and vitamin C. Significant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy and all nutrients (). §Significant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy and nutrients () including proteins, carbohydrates, and calcium. ǁSignificant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy () and all nutrients (). Significant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy and all the nutrients (). §§Significant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy and all nutrients () except proteins (). ǁǁSignificant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy and all nutrients (). ¶¶Significant differences were found using Mann–Whitney U test for all nutrients () except energy, zinc, and vitamin C. Significant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy and all the nutrients ().

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.